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Political Behavior Test
Terms in this set (80)
The Federal Elections Commission put a $1000 limit on hard money individual contributions. In 2002, The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act put a $2000 limit on contributions and did not allow any more soft money
Gave women the right to vote
special interest groups that use dark money. They don't have to report donors to the IRS
a type of U.S. tax-exempt organization organized under Section 527 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code. A 527 group is created primarily to influence the selection, nomination, election, appointment or defeat of candidates to federal, state or local public office
what lobbyists want to get from politicians
a site that collects data from other sources across the internet and puts the information in one place where users can access it. The data collected is based on a keyword or a group of related keywords.
the practice of masking the sponsors of a message or organization to make it appear as though it originates from and is supported by grassroots participants. It is a practice intended to give the statements or organizations credibility by withholding information about the source's financial connection
CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM
Campaign finance reform is the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns.
a meeting at which local members of a political party register their preference among candidates running for office or select delegates to attend a convention.
CITIZENS UNITED V. FEC
2010, a US Constitutional Law, campaign finance, and corporate law case regarding the regulation of political campaign spending by organizations
The coattail effect or down-ballot effect is the tendency for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election
when people agree
a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, human imperfection, organic solidarity, hierarchy, authority, and property rights.
CONTINUOUS NEWS CYCLE
24-hour investigation and reporting of news, concomitant with fast-paced lifestyles.
an inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest; skepticism.
refers to political spending meant to influence the decision of a voter, where the donor is not disclosed and the source of the money is unknown. Depending upon the circumstances, Dark Money can refer to funds spent by a political nonprofit or a super PAC.
follows a liberal program, tending to promote a strong central government and expansive social programs
characteristics of a population, including age, sex, and race. Demographics are often used to determine changes in the make-up of a population.
a primary in which members of a party nominate its candidates by direct vote
One which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement, use collection action from the local level to effect change at the local, regional, national, or international level, the organization of citizens towards a goal
people qualified to vote
Federal Election Commission
a six member bipartisan agency created by the federal election campaign act of 1974. The FEC administers the campaign finance laws and enforces compliance with their requirements. The duties are to disclose campaign finance information to enforce the provisions of the law such as limits and prohibitions on contributions.
News that is posted on the internet that does not have the correct information or deliberately consists of misinformation or hoaxes with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person
the right to vote- same as suffrage
Voters choose officeholder form among all the candidates nominated by pol. parties/running as independents
When opposing parties interests often block each other's proposals, creating a pol. stalemate/inaction between the executive & legislative branches of govt
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.
people (voters or candidates) who do not choose to side with any political party, they vote INDEPENDENT of all political party viewss
private organization that tries to persuade public officials to respond to the shared attitude of its members (Objective is to change or sustain public policy by lobbying and exploiting the revolving door
a system of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.
far left, very democrat
if you are in the government then you are prevented from lobbying at first.
are key figures in the political process, using persuasion and money to influence legislation. They try and bribe politicians to vote a certain way.
a voluntary public association of voters who seek to control public policy by winning elections and holding public office (Republicans, Democrats) whose objective is to win
the authority to carry out a policy or course of action, regarded as given by the electorate to a candidate or party that is victorious in an election (an order by the people for the government to do something based on election results!) - ex. If people vote for Trump they expect "the wall" to be built
green party; goal is to be absorbed by one of the major parties
views that have a slight bias towards one major party or the other, but in general have views that are split between both parties
open is regardless of your party you can vote in the primaries, closed is where you can only vote in the primary of your political party (independents can't vote in closed primaries)
political campaigning in which a politician or party focuses on criticizing another politician or party rather than emphasizing their own positive qualities.
selecting a candidate for a election
a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample
a strong supporter of a party, cause, or person
Party identification refers to the political party with which an individual identifies. Party identification is an affiliation with a political party. Party identification is typically determined by the political party that an individual most commonly supports (by voting or other means).
PARTY PLATFORM - PLANK
A political party platform or program is a formal set of principal goals which are supported by a political party or individual candidate, in order to appeal to the general public, for the ultimate purpose of garnering the general public's support and votes about complicated topics or issues.
POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEES (PACS)
an organization that raises money privately to influence elections or legislation, especially at the federal level.
A political party is a group of voters organized to support certain public policies. The aim of a political party is to elect officials who will try to carry out the party's policies. A political party offers candidates for public office.
Political socialization is a lifelong process by which people form their ideas about politics and acquire political values. The family, educational system, peer groups, and the mass media all play a role.
A political spectrum is a system of classifying different political positions upon one or more geometric axes that represent independent political dimensions.
Political TV ad
ads designed by political consultants and political campaign staff to influence political debate and voters
a tax levied on every adult, without reference to income or resources.
A polling place is where voters cast their ballots in elections.
advertisements that either focus on positive things about their candidate or focus on bringing down the opposing candidate.
the president would question or contradict what is a known truth. Idea that facts don't matter.
A voting district
A primary election is the process by which voters, either the general public or members of a political party, can indicate their preference for a candidate in an upcoming general election or by-election, thus narrowing the field of candidates.
Print v. Electronic Media
Print media typically includes newspapers, articles, journals etc. on the other hand, electronic media could be internet, television, social media etc
nonprofit organization that helps diverse leaders and citizens navigate divisive and complex issues.
PUBLIC FUNDING ($3 CONTRIBUTION)-
On tax form, $3 going to funding a presidential campaign. Campaigns are funded through tax money
public opinion polls
opinion poll, often simply referred to as a poll or a survey, is a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample. They are used throughout the course of election campaigns by candidates and by the media to see which candidates are ahead and who is likely to emerge victorious.
the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
quid pro quo
a favor or advantage granted or expected in return for something
QUOTA SAMPLE (POLLING)
a method for selecting survey participants that is a non-probabilistic version of stratified sampling, requires that representative individuals are chosen out of a specific subgroup.
random sample (polling)
a subset of individuals chosen from a larger set. Each individual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen.
when you register to vote, you pick the political party you wish to be affiliated with and there are no other requirements for being in that party.
involves face-to-face interaction between politicians and voters.
involves face-to-face interaction between politicians and voters
political contributions made in such a way as to avoid the United States regulations for federal election campaigns (as by contributions to a political action committee)
REPUBLICAN - GOP
(Grand Old Party) a conservative political party
A political party formed by members of an existing one whose views or policies differ from those of the majority
refers to when a voter in an election votes for candidates from different political parties when multiple offices are being decided by a single election
is a standard speech used by a politician running for office
the right to vote in political elections
be reviewed by anyone, and its laws and decisions are open to discussion
straight -ticket voting
here a voter chooses candidates from the same political party for every office up for election.
two party system
is a party system where two major political parties dominate the government. One of the two parties typically holds a majority in the legislature and is usually referred to as the majority or governing party while the other is the minority or opposition party.
is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election
is an electoral system in which a single political party or group can elect every office within a given district or jurisdiction.
Describe the results of the 2018 Midterm elections from a national state and local perspective.
Senate- Republicans maintained control of the house.
House- Democrats won control of the house.
Governors- republicans still have more governors but they lost 7
Governor- democratic Incumbent Tom Wolf won
Senator- democratic incumbent Bob Casey won
6th Congressional District- Democrat Chrissy Houlahan won. It was formerly a Republican district.
Local PA House Races- all democrats won
How do personal background, party loyalty, issues, and perception of the candidates influence voters?
Personal background, party loyalty, issues, and perception of the candidates all influence voters. Voters choose to vote for candidates that tend to match their views and belief. They are chosen because voter wants them to represent their community. Many times when choosing a candidate people take the person's education and record into account. If a candidate seems to be very intelligent or come from a good school then that could gain them votes. Sometimes voters will vote only for their party even if they don't agree with everything the candidate does because they just don't want the other party to win. A voters background can also cause them to vote for specific people. If the voter lives in a poorer area then they are most likely to vote for the candidate who is willing to support universal health care. Things such as advertisements and campaigns can also help create a perception of the candidate running for election and can influence voters greatly.
List, describe, and evaluate the function of major American political parties.
The 6 functions of major American political parties are nominating candidates for office, informing and stimulating, a seal of approval, governmental, a watchdog, and stability. Nominating candidates for office is a major function as this is the main reason a party is created so that the party can gain power in the election process. Political parties also aim to inform and stimulate voters so that people are educated and are more involved in the process. The seal of approval is focused more on future elections because if a candidate is elected into office and performs poorly then the party may pay for that in the next election. For example, Donald Trump did not do very well in the last 2 years of office therefore it was very easy for the Democrats to takeover and win the elections in 2018. For the governmental aspect, the political parties aim to take control of the government so that they are on the same side. If the Congress is controlled by the Democratic party and the President is in the Democratic party then many laws will be passed. On the other hand, if the Congress is Democratic and the president is Republican not very many laws will be passed. For the stability of the party, even if the party is not in control they might still have the majority and therefore could have power over the minority.
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