34 terms

Central Processing Units

Which two manufacturers dominate the market?
Intel-Largest Market share
AMD-typically more cost effective
How much memory can a 32-bit processor recognize?
Up to 4GB of memory
How much memory can a 64-bit processor recognize?
Up to 16 TB of memory
All 32-bit CPU's use what instruction set
X86 Instruction set
What instruction set does Intel's Itanium processor utilize?
IA-64 Set
Which instruction set do both AMD and Intel 64 bit CPU's utilize?
X64 Instruction Set
What is an instruction set?
The kind of operations a CPU can preform
Clock speed
Measured in Megahertz or gigahertz
What is hyper-threading?
Allows a single processor to run two threads (instructions) at the same time
(typically a 20% increase in preformance
What is cache memory?
Cache is memory that the processor can access directly without using the system RAM
What is throttling?
Allows a CPU to slow down or speed up dynamically
(affecting battery life, often to preform while on battery)
What is overclocking?
It is increasing the chips performance while deteriorating life
What is front side bus?
It is the CPU and north/south Bridges
What is North Bridge Chipset
Handles IO to video and to memory
What is ZIF?
Zero Insertion force, referring to a type of CPU typically with a lever.
What is a PGA?
PGA processors implement a series of pins on the underside of the processor package in an array. The pins are inserted into corresponding receptacles within the processor socket on the motherboard.
What is a CPU
Central Processing Unit
What is South Bridge Chipset
Handles input and output to external expansion
What must clock with the CPU?
The front side bus
Does the CPU have to match the configuration of the mother board?
Overall System performance can be improved by
Better cooling
More memory
and Faster disk speed
What is the speed/Frequency
Processors operate using an internal clock that is the same as, or is a multiple of, the motherboard bus speed. The speed is represented in MHz and is also referred to as the frequency.
How many cache levels of memory are there?
3 Levels
Level 1 (L1) cache is integrated on the processor die itself and stores instructions for the processor. On multi-core systems, each processor typically has its ownL1 cache. Some processors might have two L1 caches, one for instructions and one for data.
Level 2 (L2) cache is additional cache used for both instructions and data.
Depending on the processor, L2 cache might be shared between two or more cores, or exclusive to a single core.
Level 3 (L3) cache is additional cache beyond the level 2 cache. For multi-core systems, L3 cache is shared between all cores.
What is Process Size
refers to the manufacturing process used to etch transistors onto the
silicon wafer that will become the CPU. A smaller process size means smaller transistors, which translates into a smaller CPU die with more transistors and less power consumption. Process size is expressed in microns
What is Throttling
is the process of modifying the operating characteristics of a processor based on current conditions. (typically to save battery life, the opposite of Turbo Boost)
What is Virtualization
Virtualization allows a single physical machine (known as the host operating system) to run multiple virtual machines (known as the guest operating systems). The virtual machines appear to be self-contained and separate physical systems
What is the Integrated Memory Controlloer
a traditional processor design, the processor is connected to the front side bus and the Northbridge chip.
What is LGA?
Land Grid Array (LGA): The LGA socket moves the connecting pins from the processor package to the socket itself. Conducting pads are implemented on the bottom of the processor that contact the protruding pins from the processor socket.
You upgrade an existing processor, ensure it is the fastest process that is supported by the motherboard. When starting the computer it beeps regularly but nothing is shown on the screen and it doesn't start. What should you do first?
Flash the BIOS
What refers to placing two processors on a single processor chip or die?
What is a characteristic of a multi-processor system?
Multiple processor sockets on the motherboard
What is the biggest advantage of 64-bit processors over 32-bit?
The ability to use over 4GB of RAM
What is the purpose of Cache Memory?
Allow a processor to access data more quickly
What affect does the processor size have on power consumption?
The smaller the processor size, typically, the smaller the power consumption