100 terms

Mexico

Chapter 10 Unit 1: Geography of Mexico Unit 2: A Place of Three Cultures
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Although the southern part of the central plateau lies in the tropics, the region
has mild temperatures because of high elevation.
Because it lies at the crossroads of four tectonic plates, Mexico's central plateau
is the site of frequent earthquake and volcanic activity.
Mexico's Baja Peninsula can be described as
a mountainous desert.
Mexico's heartland region is dominated by
an elevated plateau.
Describes the population distribution in Mexico.
The majority of the population lives in the plateau area that lies between the two major mountain ranges.
Irrigation
The artificial watering of farmland by storing and distributing water drawn from reservoirs or rivers
Peninsula
A strip of land that juts out like the Baja California or the Yucatan
Plateau Where is it located?
An area of high flat ground where Mexico City is located
Sinkhole
Underground caverns caused by dissolving limestone
What ancient ruins located on the Yucatan Peninsula attract tourists?
Mayan
Latifundios are more likely than ejidos to do all of the following except:
a. raise cash crops.
b. employ migrant workers.
c. export produce to the United States.
d. be owned by members of a rural community.
d. be owned by members of a rural community.
A basic difference between the democratic republic of Mexico and that of the United States is that in Mexico,
one political party held power for decades.
A primary reason for the war of independence from Spain was
The unhappiness of the criollos at the privileges reserved only for the peninsulares.
All of the following are accurate statements about haciendas except:
They were usually owned by absentee landlords who lived in Spain.
Describe Mexico's physical features in two words.
RUGGED TERRAIN
What physical feature dominates Mexico?
Mountains
What is the largest and second largest mountain range in Mexico?
The Sierra Madre Occidental and the Sierra Madre Oriental.
Where is the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Sierra Madre Oriental located?
SMOC extends along the western coast and the SMOR is located parallel on the eastern coast. Both on the gulf of Mexico
What does Sierra Madres translate to literally?
Mother Ranges
What lies between the Sierra Madres?
Mexico's central plateau
Describe Mexico's different coastal plains.
The Northern Pacific Coast: Includes Baja California, meaning lower california, but it is actually located in Mexico.
The Southern Pacific Coast: South of the central plateau which is a narrow strip of tropical coastline. City of Acapulco is located at midpoint
Where is the Yucatan Peninsula?
On the east, the Gulf coastal plain curves around the Gulf of Mexico into this peninsula.
What is significant about the Yucatan Peninsula?
Set apart from the rest of Mexico, sticks out into the Gulf like a thumb
What soil in Mexico has the best farmland?
The elevated plateau in the heartland region because it has rich soil and plenty of rainfall. 4/5 of the population lives here.
Why is Mexico's central plateau geologically unstable?
Mexico is located at the intersection of four tectonic plates and some of the mountains on the southern edge of the plateau are active volcanos, so there are often a lot of earthquakes
What are the four tectonic plates that intersects the Heartland Region?
The North American
The Caribbean
The Pacific
The Cocos
Why is Mexico's heartland region an attractive/popular place to live?
Climate
What does Mexico's Sierra Madres block?
Rainfall from coming from the ocean, but rain is brought to the lower end of the plateau
What is significant about Mexico's elevation?
The high elevation keeps temperatures mild and makes the climate pleasant year round
In the past, what were poor people in Mexico treated as? Now?
Ilegal squatters, but now they are legally allowed to own small parcels of land after having lived on them for 5 years.
Where are plain widest in the coastal region of Mexico?
Along the Gulf Coast and the Northern Pacific Coast
What is one of the fastest growing cities in Mexico?
The city of Tijuana
Why is Tijuana a fast growing city?
Despite its arid climate, this region has some of the best farmland and irrigation
What rivers are dams built on in Mexico?
Colorado
Sonora
Yaqui
What do dams provide Mexico with?
It enables farmers to raise wheat, cotton, and other crops
What important mountain range is located at the southern pacific coast of Mexico?
The steep sided Sierra Madre del Sur
Sierra Madre del Sur
Little farmland, but has natural setting and tropical climate favors tourism
How does the Gulf Coastal Plain benefit Mexico's economy?
Along the plain and offshore, beneath the waters of the Gulf of Mexico are vast deposits of petroleum and natural gas making it one of the world's major oil-producing regions
Yucatan Peninsula
Generally flat, but the bedrock that underlies the Yucatan is porous limestone and when rain falls here, it seeps through the surface of the land.
What does the rain fall on the Yucatan Peninsula do?
Works ist way into the rocks and the limestone gradually dissolves creating underground caverns. May create sinkhole
How do sinkholes benefit the Yucatan Peninsulas?
The ancient Mayans used them as wells
Describe the population at the Yucatan Peninsula?
The population is fairly sparse, but ancient Mayan ruins attract tourist and archaeologists
What attracts tourists to the Yucatan Peninsula?
Mayan ruins
How do natural hazards and climate affect the heartland region of Mexico?
Mexico is located at the intersection of four tectonic plates so earthquakes occur often.
Some of the mountains on the southern edge of the plateau are volcanos
The towering Sierra Madres blocks rainfall
High elevation keeps temperatures mild and pleasant
How do conditions in the coastal regions of Mexico influence economic activities?
Ground for major industries such as oil-producing companies
Tourism
Coast is lined with thousands of hotels and resorts
How might worldwide demand for gasoline effect the economy of the Gulf Coastal plain?
Higher demand = Oil Price Higher = More money = BOMB DIA
The Plaza De Las Tres Culturas
Translated in English to Three Cultures
It is located on the site of an Aztec center that fell to Spanish in 1521 battle
What is located in the middle of the plaza de las tres culturas?
In the center were the restored ruins of an Aztec temple pyramid.
What were located on the sides of the tres culturas?
On one side of the square was a church and the other side, twin office buildings that represented Mexico's modern culture.
What three cultures represent the plaza and what do they make up?
Together, these three cultures - Native Americans, Spanish, and mestizo - make up modern Mexico.
Tenochtitlan
i) This was Mexico's most powerful and thriving capital city which was the center of an empire that spread over much of south-central Mexico
Where was Tenochtitlan built?
ii) It was built on an island in a lake, occupying the site of modern Mexico City.
What did Tenochtitlan's main square include?
iii) Its main square had great temples and the palaces of Aztec royalty, making it one of the largest cities in the world.
How did the the spanish conquest begin?
i) Spanish adventurer, Hernán Cortéz, with six hundred Spanish soldiers, marched into Tenochtitlán in 1519.
Where did the soldiers from the spanish conquest come from?
ii) They had come inland from Mexico's Gulf coast, making allies of the Aztecs' enemies along the way.
What was the result of the spanish conquest?
iii) The conquistadors destroyed the Aztec empire and then went on to conquer the remaining Indian groups in Mexico.
What did the territory won by cortez become?
New Spain
Who led the spanish conquest?
Cortez
AS the spanish settled New Spain, what happened?
Four social classes emerged as the Spanish settled New Spain:
Peninsulares
Criollos
Mestizos
Indians
Peninsulares
Those born in Spain
Criollos
People of Spanish ancestry born in the Americas
Mestizos
People of mixed ancestry
Indians
Lowest social class
Hacienda
Large, Spanish-owned estates of land, usually run as farms or cattle ranches. that Native Americans provided the labor on
What was given to the conquistadors as a reward? Why? System?
Both the haciendas and Native Americans were given to the conquistadors as rewards by the Spanish king under the system known as encomienda
Encomienda
Landowners caring for the peasants' welfare.
How did the War of Independence spark in Mexico?
i) In 1810 a criollo priest named Miguel Hidalgo called for a rebellion against Spanish rule, causing the independent nation of Mexico to establish.
What was the effect of the War of Independence between the criollos and peninsulares?
Although Mexico achieved independence, the new nation was not yet democratic, so strong military leaders ruled as dictators.
Who was the war of independence between?
The criollos and peninsulares
What happened by the end of the 1800's after the war of independence?
iii) By the end of the 1800's, Mexico began to develop railroads, ranches were expanded, and Mexico's valuable oil reserves were developed.
The Mexican Revolution
i) In 1910, peasants and middle-class Mexicans rebelled against the military dictator and the landlords who controlled the country.
What happened by the end of the Mexican Revolution in 1920?
By the time the Mexican Revolution ended in 1920, Mexico had a new constitution and a new government that promised "land, bread, and justice for all."
The Institutional Revolutionary Party Vs. National Action Party
iii) The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) controlled Mexican politics for many decades and ended in 2000, when National Action Party (PAN) candidate Vicente Fox was elected president. (Mexico is a federal republic government).
After the revolution, what was an effect to the rural community?
i) After the revolution, the government began a program of buying out landowners and breaking up their large haciendas.
Land Redistribution
When estates are divided among landless peasant
Ejidos
Farmland owned collectively by members of a rural community.
Latifundos
Huge commercial farms owned by individuals or by farming companies.
What did Mexico's commercial farms and ejidos raise?
Cash crops
Cash Crops
Farm crops grown for sale and profit, such as corn, sugar cane, coffee, and fruit.
Migrant Workers
They travel from place to place where extra workers are needed to cultivate or harvest crops
Why would people become migrant workers?
Many were jobless and/or landless
How did migrant workers cross the border?
While some have permits to cross the border, others cross illegally.
What is a benefit in urban life vs. rural life?
ii) City life means better job opportunities than those found in the countryside and chances for education.
Are most people living in an urban environment poor or wealthy?
iii) Although there is a small, wealthy, educated upper class in the cities, most urban dwellers in Mexico are the very poor and must struggle to survive.
What forms the NAFTA?
i) The United States, Canada, and Mexico
NAFTA
Designed to compete with the European Union, a free-trade network in Europe.
What was an effect of NAFTA?
ii) NAFTA phased out trade barriers among the three countries, so manufacturing increased and unemployment decreased
Mexico pursued new trade agreements with other countries.
What are two of the most important economically important activities in Mexico?
Two of Mexico's most important economic activities are petroleum extraction and tourism.
Great reserves of petroleum lie off
Mexico's Gulf coast near the city of Tampico.
What makes tourism another major source of income for Mexico?
Climate, scenery, tropical beaches, and a rich cultural history
What is Mexico's leading industrial center?
manufacturing factories
What is a disadvantage of manufacturing factories?
Creates a load of pollution, particularly, polluted air from factories or cars collects over the city because mountains trap the air on three sides.
What is a nickname Mexicans call tourism?
"smokeless industry."
What is clustered along the Mexico-Us border?
More than two thousand maquiladoras
Maquiladoras
Factories that assemble products almost exclusively for consumers in the United States.
What has the increase of pollutants from maquiladoras concerned?
It has raised concerns about damage to health and the environment, so many factories have been accused of air and water pollution and improper disposal of waste products.
How did Spanish conquest affect social structure in Mexico?
Spanish conquest affected social structure in Mexico by emerging four social classes.
What social conditions caused many people to become migrant workers?
4. Most rural Mexican families had Neither the land nor opportunities for work. Additionally, they didn't make enough money in one place, and they lacked social skill! Unfortunately, they were landless and jobless.
Why are maquiladoras clustered along the Mexico-US border?
5. The many factories clustered along The United States-Mexico border, known as maquiladoras, were clustered along the border because these factories assembled products almost exclusively for consumers in the United States.
How do you think Mexico would be affected by a worldwide demand for oi?
It would bring more income, since oil is a major export of Mexico, and the demand for oil is relatively unyielding.
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