Geography Chapter 1
Terms in this set (65)
5 components of spatial analysis:
location, distance space, accessibility, spatial interaction
the names given to regions and places.. fixed in terms of site (physical attributes of a location or situation) and situation (the location of a place relative to other places and human activities)---- cognitive images
relative measure-- expressed in terms of time, effort, or cost... cognitive: based on people's personal judgements about the degree of spatial separation between points.. "nearness principle".. ppl seek to maximize the net utility of location
First law of geography
Waldo Tobler.. friction of distance (a reflection of the time and cost of overcoming distance).. the deterrent effects of extra distance tend to lessen as greater distance are involved.
absolute space: mathematical reasoning; topological space: connections between or connectivity of points in space; experiential or cultural space: the space of people with common ties; cognitive space: behavioral space
defined in terms of relative location; distance and connectivity
all kinds of movement and flows involving human activity;
examples: freight shipments, commuting, shopping trips, telecommunicaiton, electrionic cash transfers, migration, and vacation travel
more short term trips made than long tern trips because of distance (distance can be barrier)
enables us to understand where we are both literally and figuratively, provides knowledge of Earth's physical and human systems and of the interdependency of living things and physical environments; stimulates curiosity about the world and the world's diverse inhabitants and places
formal geography definition:
concerned with providing an accurate, orderly, and rational description and interpretation of the variable character of the earth's surface
deals with spatial and science aspects
spatial: the where ex.= what's next to each other, capitals
science: the what and why--- what: physical geography;---- why: human geography
consider global communications; travel (barriers: language and money); and stereotypes (Us/ America does not care bc of media/ popculture); change perception: don't be arrogant, put yourself out there! 1 person could represent others' perception of Us. We do not know much outside of Us, especially with languages.
human geography definition
recognizing and understanding the interdependence among places and regions, without losing sight of the uniqueness of each specific place
First settlers: where did they settle and why did they settle there?
1st European settlers settled in specific place for water access: water for drinks and survival, travel, and agriculture
spatial organization of human activity (definition)
interactions between people and their environments
MAPS!!!/ spatial understanding spatial concept such as location- specific map
reflect the view of the world that is dominant in universities and government agencies
designed to represent the form of Earth's surface and to show permanent (or long-standing) features such as buildings, highways, field boundaries, and political boundaries .. uses contour (a line that connects points of equal vertical distance above or below a zero data point) to represent the form of the Earth's surface
represent the spatial dimensions of particular conditions, processes, or events... uses the isoline (connects places of equal data values) also uses proportional symbol that can be drawn in proportion to the frequency of occurrence of some particular phenomenon or event at a given location..... can also be based on located charts (graphs or charts are located by place or region)
maps based on isolines (connects places of equal data values)
a single dot or other symbol represents a specified number of occurrences of some particular phenomenon or event
tonal shadings are graduated to reflect variations in numbers, frequencies, or densities
ratio between linear distance on a map and linear distance on Earth's surface.. expressed in terms of corresponding lengths or representative fraction..
small-scale maps are based on small representative fractions, while large-scale maps are maps based on larger representative fractions
a systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographic coordinates of the features found in Earth's surface.. choice of map projection depends largely on the purpose of the map
allow distance to be represented as accurately as possible (only in 1 direction), usually provide accurate scale in the perpendicular direction.. more aesthetically pleasing for representing Earth as a whole.. ex.) polyconic projection
compass direction are rendered accurately ex.) Mercator projection
compass directions are correct only from one central point; can be equidistant or equal area
equidistant or equal area projections: portray areas on Earth's surface in their true proportions
distorts both area and directional relationships but provides general-purpose world map; distance, direction, area, and shape are all distorted in an attempt to balance the properties of the map designed purely for appearance!!
was widely used as the standard classroom wall map of the world for many years
attempt give prominence to the underdeveloped countries of the equatorial regions and the Southern Hemisphere. Promoted the "Europeanization" of Earth.. distorts the shape of land masses
used in small-scale thematic maps; space is transformed according to statistical factors, with the largest mapping units representing the greatest statistical values; dramatically emphasizes spatial variations
why and how/ culture/ interactions; how things differ
1.) It's important to know where the places are on a map. Also, places on the map can be perceived differently according to what they are known for.
2.) 70 percent of young adults in the United States could not find their own country on a map of the world. Americans come in next to last in terms of geographic literacy. Majority of Americans overestimate the total size of the U.S. population and fail to understand how much larger the population of China is. 3/4's of young adults in the US believe English is the most commonly spoken native language in the world
socially and physically relevant to you
Personal Geographies: places..
- exert strong influence on people's physical well-being, opportunities and lifestyle choices..
- places provide the settings for people's daily lives and their social relations..
- people learn who and what they are, how they are expected to think and behave, and what life is likely to hold for them..
- places also contribute to people's collective memory and become powerful emotional and cultural symbols
- places are settings for social interaction that structure the daily routines of people's economic and social life
-provide both opportunities and constraints in terms of people's long-term social well-being; provide a context in which everyday, commonsense knowledge and experience are gathered; provide a setting for processes of socialization; and provide an arena for contesting social norms
Personal Geographies: places...Identity and influence:
-identity: the sense that you make of yourself through your subjective feelings based on your everyday experiences and social relations
-influence: (examples) sense of health, home, and what I do
Personal Geographies= places.. locations of change
the unique characteristics of specific places can provide the preconditions or new agricultural practices, new modes of economic organization, new cultural practices, and new lifestyles.. in specific locales that important events happen, and from the events significant changes spread
places always modify and sometimes resist the imprint of even the broadest economic, cultural, and political trends
-ex.) San Fransico, Silicon Valley, Portland (hippies, forward thinking)
Physical vs. Human--
need BOTH in geography
want to be taken seriously--- chemists, environmentalists; Earth's natural processes; examples: climate, weather, soil, ecology, tectonics; THE "what" OF GEOGRAPHY IS IMPORTANT!!
have to think about people; spatial organizations of human activities; examples: migration, development patterns, culture, food; the "how" and "why" is important
physical AND human geography
Geography is an applied discipline. Apply geography to what I do
example... star wars, lord of the rings, hunger games, harry potter] --> develop new world/ political conflict/ create population
combination of both physical (deals with Earth's natural processes and their outcomes.. concerned with climate, weather patterns, landforms, soil formation, and plant and animal ecology) and human geography (the spatial organization of human activities and with people's relationships to their environments.. concerned with agricultural production, food security, population change, the ecology of human diseases, resource management, environmental pollution, regional planning, and the symbolism of places and landscapes), and [how?] they affect each other
Tools and Methods:
Observations-> Visualization (Qualitative)-> Analysis (Quantative)
research with quality
numbers, percentages/ percents, Earth rotates fast
GIS (Geographic Information System); Remote Sensing; GPS
Geographic Information system--> analyze data; one of the most important methods of geographic analysis; the software in this incorporates programs to store and access spatial data, to manipulate those data, and to draw maps; requirement for data to be used in GIS is that the locations for the variables- the characteristics under consideration- are known... any variable that can be located spatially can be fed into the GIS; different sources of data must be integrated with one another; changes must be tracked and updated;
the collection of information about parts of Earth's surface by means of aerial photography or satellite imagery designed to record data on visible, infrared, and microwave sensor systems
dealing with latitude and longitude pts.; consist of 21 satellites (plus 3 spares) that orbit Earth on precisely predictable paths, broadcasting highly accurate time and locational information; owned by US gov't.. but transmitted info. Is freely available to everyone around the world.. dramatically increased the accuracy and efficiency of collecting spatial data
With GPS, latitude vs. longitude
---latitude (parallels) refers to the angular distance of a point on Earth's surface ,measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds north or south from the equator; runs parallel to the equator
---Longitude: angular distance of a point on Earth's surface.. measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds east or west from the prime meridian
complementary (can refer to pg. 22-23 in text if necessary)
supply and demand
transferability (can refer to pg. 22-23 in text if necessary)
acceptable cost vs. time... function.. with transfer of goods, time is limit factor
intervening opportunity (can refer to pg. 22-23 in text if necessary)
France, MB... alternative origins/ destinations.. more important in determining the volume and pattern and movements and flows; the size and relative importance of alternative destinations are important aspects!!; Principle of intervening opportunity!!
--*barriers: distance, cost, political, physical environment, cultural
the spread over time and space (one of the most important aspects of spatial interaction and is crucial to understanding geographic change
• Think of spider bites and spreading of venom
• Crucial to the practice of geography:
-Expansion (meets place) and hierarchical diffusion ((place to place, no regard to proximity.. ex.) fashion capitals, financial centers))
-Examples: urban sprawl (can be both expansion and hierarchial diffusion) "more houses"..;; disease outbreak (diseases spread through proximity)
(1912-1976) Geographer- for any type of interaction to occur, 3 factors must be present to allow for the interaction to happen:
-Complementary; Transferability; Intervening Opportunity
Regional Analysis (refer to p 24-26 of text for more information if necessary)
complex relationship between ppl and places;
consists of: regionalism, landscape, sense of place, place
situations in which different religious or ethnic groups with distinctive identities coexist within the same boundaries, often concentrated within a particular region and sharing strong feelings of collective identity(often involves ethnic groups who aims include autonomy from national sate and the development of their own political power
(types listed under landscape heading after regions info.); some landscapes become powerfully symbolic of national identity; landscapes reflect people's dreams and ideas as well as their material lives
sense of place
landscapes produce and communicate meaning; evokes feelings .. also refers to the character of a place as seen by outsiders; its distinctive physical characteristics and/or its inhabitants.; intersubjectivity: shared meanings are derived from everyday practice
specific geographic settings with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes
the basic unit of study; areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and external difference from surrounding territories -- like the concentrated South!!; a basic unit of geographic study—a contiguous area on the earths surface that is defined by certain unifying characteristics
• Functional: definite, specific, ot set (ex.) business district)
• Perceptual: feelings, identities
o Regional concept: the classification of an area based on its regional characteristics
Phenomenon tend to be concentrated in particular areas, not spread out evenly across the earth's surface
No two places are alike, but can be similar
Ordinary: everyday landscapes: your town, city, college campus (WU!!), etc.
Symbolic: manufactured landscapes based on values and aspirations pushed by builders, developers, etc. by using architecture, landscape architecture, and planning to evoke sense f place. Emotion is evoked from visitors
Sense of Place *important section!!
*Feel mostly at home
*"Mental" region based upon: memories; language-patterns/ vocabulary/ dialect; farmers markets; fairs; Customs
*Places exert strong influence on people's physical well-being, opportunities and lifestyle choices.. places provide the settings for people's daily lives and their social relations.. people learn who and what they are, how they are expected to think and behave, and what life is likely to hold for them..
*Places also contribute to people's collective memory and become powerful emotional and cultural symbols.
Definition: increasing interconnectedness of people and societies.. changes how geography and anything works
1. Economic Integration: international banking and global marketing
2. Political integration: nongovernmental organizations, news media, and the internet
3. Cultural integration: "Mexican culture"
*Goal: understand changing patterns, processes, and relationships among people, places, and region; understand that general changes can and will cause unique outcomes
*allows us to make informed judgments about future geographies :IMPORTANT PART OF PPLYING GEOGRAPHICAL MAGINATION!!
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