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Statistics Final
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Terms in this set (43)
Sample size
the larger the number, the smaller the interval
sample standard deviation
the smaller, the smaller the interval
degree of confidence
the lower, the smaller the interval
When you know the population standard deviation you use the ________ table to calculate the confidence interval
z-table
When you only know the sample standard deviation, you have to use the _______ distribution and table to calculate the confidence interval
t-distribution and the t-table
z-critical two tailed values
a= .05
1.96 (95%)
z-critical two tailed values
a-.01
2.575 (99%)
Nonparametiric statistics
look at the entire distribution of scores
When do you use nonparametrics instead of parametrics?
You have nominal data and perhaps ordinal data
When do you use a two-group independent sample t-test?
when you have one independent variable which is divided into two groups and one dependent variable
People are placed into your two groups by random assignment and are not paired in any way
When do you use a two-group dependent sample t-test?
when you have one independent variable which is divided into two groups and one dependent variable
People are paired and one person in each pair is placed in one group of the pair is placed in the second group. Repeated measures
When do you use a One-way between-subjects ANOVA?
you have on e independent variable that is between subjects and are each divided into two or more groups. The dependent variable is interval or ratio
When do you use a Two-way between subjects ANOVA?
You have two independent variables that are both between subjects and are each divided into two or more groups. The dependent variable is interval or ratio.
When do you use a Chi-square test of independence?
When you have two nominal variables and you are seeing if they are contingent on (dependent on) each other?
Researcher produced pairs
people come unpaired and the researcher pairs them
Naturally occurring pairs
people come already paired
repeated measures
most common--> same person in both groups.
pair of scores not people--> randomly assigned to order of conditions
Strength of association
variability in your dependent variable is explained by your dependent variable
Which two-group t test is better and why?
Dependent- it increases power
When is it appropriate to use ANOVA?
To compare two or more independent groups to see if theres a difference?
Why use ANOVA over multiple t-tests?
Computational rigor
Overlap between t-tests
More tests, more alpha, more error
Assumptions of one-way ANOVA
Normal distribution- robust
Independent groups- not robust
groups have equal variances- robust to only small inequalities of variances if the sample sizes are equal
Null and Alternative Hypothesis for ANOVA
Null- There is no difference
Alternative- There is a difference
Sum of squares
the sum of the squared deviation scores
Mean squares
sum of squares divided by the degrees of freedom
F-ratio
Variation Between Sample Means divided by Variation Within the Samples.
What is J?
J is the number of groups
ANOVA factors
Number of independent variables
ANOVA Cells
Hoe many levels each independent variables (how we name the ANOVA i.e. 3x3)
When do you use a nonparametrics test?
If ALL variables are nominal
Type of nonparametrics test
Chi-squres
Type of parametrics test
Every other test we learned
What are two sources of variance in the one-way ANOVA?
Between and within
What are the four sources of variance in the two-way ANOVA?
Main Effect A
Main Effect B
Interaction
Within
Advantages of the two-way ANOVA over the one-way ANOVA?
Save study participants
Has greater generalizability
Can detect interactions
What is the name of each independent variable in a two-way ANOVA?
factor
What are we examining when we focus on the effect of one independent variable ignoring the levels of the other independent variable in a two-way ANOVA?
main effect
What represents the unique way that two independent variables combine to affect the dependent variable when examined together in a two-way ANOVA. This cannot be accounted for by the individual effect that each independent variable has on the dependent variable alone.
Ineteraction
One way ANOVA df within
total number of observations minus number of groups
(N-J)
Two way ANOVA df within
total number of observations minus two independent variables multiplied
(N-JK)
Two way ANOVA df AxB
independent variable minus one times independent variable minus one
(J-1)(K-1)
There is a main effect if averages are ______
different
There is an interaction if the lines are/aren't parallel
aren't
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