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_____ learning deals with expression of feelings and acceptance of attitudes, opinions or values; willingness to learn.
_____ learning involves acquiring skills that require integration of mental and muscular activity.
____ ____ includes the stages of denial, anger, bargaining, resolution and acceptance.
The ____ carries urine from the bladder, through the pelvic floor, and exits through the urethral meatus.
Prerenal / renal / postrenal:
Conditions that affect urine volume and quality are generally categorized as ____, ____ or _____.
End-stage renal disease:
Diseases that cause irreversible damage to kidney tissue result in ___-___ ____ ____.
______ is an infection of the kidney and the ureters, the
ducts that carry urine away from the kidney.
Obstructions in the lower UT that prevents urine flow from the kidneys is classified as ______.
____ catheterization involves surgical placement of a catheter through the abdominal wall above the symphysis pubis and into the urinary bladder.
Excessive urine output is called _____ and can be caused by diabetes, diuretics, or diuresis (fluids that increase output).
Decreased urine output is called ____ and can be caused by renal blood flow (shock) or obstruction of flow (prostrate hypertrophy).
Examples of medications that may cause ____ ____ are antihypertensives, antihistamines and anticholenergics.
_____ is the process of nutritive delivery of arterial blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue.
_____ blood is delivered to the right side of the heart and to the pulmonary circulation.
Blood is ____ through the mechanisms of ventilation, perfusion, and transport of respiratory gases.
Decreased / decrease:
Coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathy result in ____ pumping action and a ____ in the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles.
Increased stretch on ventricular muscle, causes increased contraction which increases the stroke volume.
____ _____ can be caused by blood vessels, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and hypervolemia.
____ nervous system influences the rate of impulse generation and speed of conduction pathways.
____ nervous system increases the rate of impulse transmission and innervates all parts of atria and ventricle
The cardiac ____ system generates the electrical impulses that control the rhythmic relaxation and contraction of the atria and ventricles.
The ____ system decreases the rate and innevates atria, ventricles, sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes.
The ____ system originates with the SA node or pacemaker, transmitted to the AV node, bundle of his and purkinje fibers.
The ___ ____ is the duration of electrical impulses as they travel through the ventricles; ventricular contraction.
Reflects the electrical activity of the conduction system; monitors the regularity and path of electrical impulses.
Represents the electrical conduction through both atria: Atrial conduction follows the P wave.
The ability of the cardiovascular system to pump oxygenated blood to the tissues and return deoxygenated blodd to the lungs.
Anemia and CO2 poisoning:
Are examples of physiological factors that decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
Shock & severe dehydration:
Two causes of extracellular fluid loss and reduced circulating blood volume.
Fever, pregnancy, wound healing & exercies:
Are examples of increased metabolic activity that increases oxygen demand.
Disturbances in conduction caused by electrical impulses that do not originate from the SA node.
Fibrillation is an uncontrolled twitching or quivering of muscle fibers and occurs in the lower chambers of the heart. During ventricular fibrillation, blood is not removed from the heart. Sudden cardiac death results.
A pulse rate of more than 100 beats per minute, with at least three irregular heartbeats in a row; can develop as an early or late complication of a heart attack.
Looks for thickening of muscles in response to exercises; no thickening indicates a potential problem.
Visualizes cardiac chambers, valves, the great vessels and coronary arteries. Measures presures and volumes within four chambers.
Right-sided Heart failure:
Right ventricle cannot empty completely, blood pools and backs up, pressure and systemic blood flow congestion result, capillary pressure forces fluid into interstitial spaces.
Right-sided Heart failure Symptoms:
Jugular vein distension, enlarged liver & spleen, dependent edema, distended abdomen, anorexia & nausea, weight gain.
Diastolic Left-sided Heart Failure:
L ventricle is unable to relax (called stiffening) and ventricle cannot fill completely; cardiac output decreases.
Systolic Left-sided Heart Failure:
Heart is unable to contract forcefully, preload increases, afterload increases, ejection fraction decreases, tissue perfusion decreases, blood accumulates in pulmonary vessels
Left-sided Heart Failure Symptoms:
Cardiac Output-Oliguria, angina, tachycardia, palpitations, pallor, weak peripheral pulses, cool extremities
Pulmonary: hacking cough, dyspnes & breathless, crackles & wheezes, frothy pink-tinged sputumn, tachypnea
Deep inspiration and prolonged expiration through pursed lips to prevent alveolar collapse.
Catheter placed through thorax, removes air & fluids from pleural space, prevents air re-entry, restablishes intrapleural & intrapulmonic pressures.
Cascade-slow,deep breath, hold for 2 sec, cough as exhale
Huff-during exhale, says huff-allows more inhalation
Quad-breathes out max while nurse pushes inward/upward
Oral suctioning is used when the patient is able to cough effectively but is unable to clear secretions by expectorating or swallowing.
Necessary when the patient with pulmonary secretions is unable to cough and does not have an artificial airway.
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