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Terms in this set (24)
Misrepresenting someone's argument to make it easier to attack
False Cause Fallacy
Presuming that a real or perceived relationship between things means that one is the cause of the other.
Appeal to Emotion
Manipulating an emotional response in place of a valid or compelling argument
The Fallacy Fallacy
Presuming that because a claim has been poorly argued, or a fallacy has been made, that the claim itself must be wrong.
Slippery Slope Fallacy
Saying that if we allow A to happen, then Z will eventually happen too, therefore A should not happen.
Ad Hominem Fallacy
Attacking your opponent's character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument.
Tu Quoque Fallacy
Avoiding having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser - answering criticism with criticism.
Personal Incredulity Fallacy
Saying that because one finds something difficult to understand that it's therefore not true.
Special Pleading Fallacy
Moving the goalposts or making up exceptions when a claim is shown to be false.
Loaded Question Fallacy
Asking a question that has a presumption built into it so that it can't be answered without appearing guilty.
Burden of Proof Fallacy
Saying that the burden of proof lies not with the person making the claim, but with someone else to disprove.
Using double meanings or ambiguities of language to mislead or misrepresent the truth.
The Gambler's Fallacy
Believing that 'runs' occur to statistically independent phenomena such as roulette wheel spins.
Appealing to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an attempted form of validation.
Appeal to Authority Fallacy
Saying that because an authority thinks something, it must therefore be true.
Assuming that what's true about one part of something has to be applied to all, or other, parts of it.
No True Scotsman Fallacy
Making what could be called an appeal to purity as a way to dismiss relevant criticisms or flaws of an argument.
Judging something good or bad on the basis of where it comes from, or from whom it comes.
Black or White Fallacy
Where two alternative states are presented as the only possibilities, when in fact more possibilities exist.
Begging the Question Fallacy
A circular argument in which the conclusion is included in the premise.
Appeal to Nature Fallacy
Making the argument that because something is 'natural' it is therefore valid, justified, inevitable, good, or ideal.
Using personal experience or an isolated example instead of a valid argument, especially to dismiss statistics.
The Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy
Cherry-picking data clusters to suit an argument, or finding a pattern to fit a presumption.
Middle Ground Fallacy
Saying that a compromise, or middle point, between two extremes is the truth.
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