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US History Unit 5 Study Guide: The West, Native Americans and the Gilded Age 1877-1900 Terms

US History Unit 5 Study Guide: The West, Native Americans and the Gilded Age 1877-1900 Terms
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Custer's Last Stand/Battle of Little Big Horn
battle in which the Sioux, led by Sitting Bull, defeated the U.S. Army led by General Custer
The Battle at Wounded Knee
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Frontier
an international boundary or the area (often fortified) immediately inside the boundary
Dry farming
a way of farming dry land in which seeds are planted deep in ground where there is some moisture
Chief Joseph
leader of the Nez Perce in their retreat from United States troops (1840-1904)
Chief Sitting Bull
a Sioux leader who was shot and killed by his own people, he believed himself to be the last true Indian because he never went to a reservation
Chief Crazy Horse
Attacked General George Armstrong Custer & 264 Calvary troops at Little Big-Horne River, Montana, killing every man
Sand Creek Massacre
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
Nez Pierce
US army vs. Nez Perce Nation; Fought at Bearpawl mountain, in northern Montana; result/impact: US army won, end to the Nez Perce nation. US would continue to conquer.
A Century of Dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson, it detailed the injustices made to Native Americans during US expansion
New immigrants
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europe;
Ellis Island
an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States
Immigration Restriction League
group that demanded that all immigrants prove that they could read and write before being allowed into the country
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
Gentleman's Agreement
Roosevelt came in and just said stop sending people to United States
Urbanization
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Tenements
poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
Captains of Industry vs. Robber barons
Robber Barons- buy out smallbussiness and raise unfair prices: Captains of Industry-they supported delevoping technology, stimulated the economy, and opened upmore jobs
Andrew Carnegie
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
Bessemer Process
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
JP Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Jay Gould
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
Vertical integration
Going from ground to spreading out
Horizontal integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
Trusts
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
Pools
agreements between companies to maintain prices at a certain level
Rebates
secret discounts
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
led by samuel gompers-focused on collective bargaining or negotiation between representitivesto reach written agreementson wageshours working conditions
Terrence Powderly
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Populist Movement
movement of farmers in the late 1800s to become politically involved to protect their interest in America; movement wanted to expand the money supply and regulate Big Business
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Income tax
a personal tax levied on annual income
referendum
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
initiative
the first of a series of actions
direct election of senators
part of the 17th amendment which states that each state should have 2 senators in the House of Senate and they can be changed or re-elected every 6 years. The house of Senate is divided up in a way so that 1/3 of the house is up for re-election every 2 years. At first, it was the state legislature who elected the senators, but after reform, it changed to the people electing the senators for their state.
Famous Quotes
"The only good Indian is a dead Indian." Philip Sheridan
"Nits make lice." Colonel John M. Chivington
"I will fight no more forever." Chief Joseph
"Kill the Indian and save the man." Richard Pratt
philanthropist
someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being
Great Railroad Strike 1877
a strike in virginia after railroad workers were given another salary cut for the year. the virginia militita was called they refused to act, so federal troops were called to stop the stikers. Fights broke out in the streets and injuries and deaths occured
Molly Maguires
a society fo irish miners who engaged in a violent confrontation with pennsylvania mining companies in the 19th century
Haymarket Square Riot 1886
A peaceful riot that when a bomb went off (no one knows who set it off)
Jane Adams and Hull House
A group of women who provided social and educational opportunities for working class people.
Frances Willard
became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
WEB DuBois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Pendleton Act
Bill signed into law by Arthur that ends patronage and institutes a meritocratic job-seeking system for civil service
Sherman Antitrust Act
an 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States