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Female Reproductive Disorders
Terms in this set (53)
arise from follicles that continue to grow, accumulate fluid, and produce hormones
retention of a cyst may cause what?
hormonal problems and/or fertility problems
rupture of a cyst may cause what?
bleeding and acute pain and may produce an infection
Why is ovarian cancer difficult to diagnose?
because it produces nondescript symptoms, such as slight pelvic discomfort, bloating, and/or fatigue
What do most ovarian cancers result from?
abnormal epithelial cells that form on surface of ovary when ovarian follicle ruptures
What natural thing can decrease the risk of developing ovarian cancer?
pregnancy and nursing because it lessens the number of ovulations
Ovarian cancer is usually not detected until when?
it has metastasized to other body parts like the lungs and bones
What puts females at a higher risk for ovarian cancer?
smoking, family history
What does early detection of uterine disorders usually result from?
What can be identified by the examination of the external genitalia?
irritation, genital lesions/growths, and abnormal discharge from the vagina
What does internal examination allow?
vaginal walls and cervix to be examined visually
removes cells from cervix and cervical canal for microscopic examination
90%-95% reliable for detecting precancerous conditions of the cervix
screening test, NOT DIAGNOSTIC
Cervical cancer was once the leading cancer killer of American women. It now ranks 7th for what reason?
increased awareness and early detection
precancerous condition that changes shape, growth rate, and quantity of cervical cells; may appear years before cervical cancer develops
principal cause of cervical cancer
who is at risk for developing cervical cancer?
sexually active early in life
multiple sexual partners
use oral contraceptives
treatment of cervical cancer
involves removal of lesions, radiation therapy, chemo, and/or hysterectomy depending upon stage of cancer and age
invades lining of inner uterus; most common among women between 50 and 64
who tends to have a higher risk for developing endometrial cancer?
women who have never been pregnant, obesity, diabetes
often an early symptom of endometrial cancer
irregular menstrual bleeding
benign cysts or polyps are common
describes growth of endometrial tissue outside uterus because of menstrual reflux thru fallopian tubes into pelvic cavity
endometrial tissue may attach to ovaries, kidneys, bladder, or abdominal wall and cause premenstrual pain or unusual menstrual pain when displaced tissue is sloughed off with normal endometrium
occurs when fertilized egg implants outside of uterine cavity, usually in ampulla of fallopian tube.
who is at risk for developing an ectopic pregnancy?
women who use IUD
have pelvic inflammatory disease
ectopic pregnancy cannot continue so what has to happen?
pregnancy MUST be aborted to prevent fallopian tube from rupturing which would trigger massive bleeding and lead to death
most common cause of breast lumps, which tend to be fluid-filled cysts or alveolar thickening
fibrocystic disease of the breast
develop about a week before menstruation begins
lumpy, swollen, tender breasts
fibrous or solid tissue masses that are usually benign
used to be the leading cause of death among women between 35 and 44, but it has been replaced by lung cancer due to smoking
most common among post-menopausal women over 50
approximately 1-8 women in the U.S. will develop what?
familial breast cancer
What if a woman has 2 copies of BRCA1 gene?
cell growth will be disrupted and breast cancer will develop
can spontaneous breast cancer develop in someone who has no family history?
risk factors for spontaneous breast cancer development
childless or had first child after 34
menstruation began before age 12
entered menopause after 50
more than 70% of breast cancers lack what?
identifiable risk factors
Where does breast cancer usually arise from?
epithelial cells that line smallest ducts
early detection of breast abnormalities such as what are important for surviving breast cancer?
lumps, tissue puckering, abnormal nipple discharge
When should a baseline mammogram be taken?
treatment of breast cancer
involves removing breast tumor and any affected tissue
removes tumor only if cancer has not spread to any other tissue in breast
if cancer has spread and a lumpectomy isn't possible, what do they do?
simple mastectomy which removes affected breast tissue and some axillary lymph nodes
rarely used. removes breast, lymph nodes, underlying pectoralis muscle and fascia to halt metastasis
used as a follow up treatment
chemo and radiation
drug therapies are recommended for what types of cancer?
uses bioengineered antibodies to jam estrogen receptors that permit aggressive growth of cancer cells
antiestrogen that blocks estrogens
Who is tamoxifen recommended for?
disables enzyme needed to make estrogens
Who does femora reduce the risk of cancer reoccurring in?
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