151 terms

U.S. History Final Semester 1

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burning of the White House
white house was burned during the war of 1812, dolly madison saved a painting of george washington before it burned
james madison
who was president when the White House was burned?
monroe doctrine
the americas were declared the united states' "sphere of influence," meaning europe should not colonize there or interfere
james monroe
who was president when the monroe doctrine was created?
trail of tears
cherokee indians were forced to leave their homes and travel to oklahoma. many died of disease and starvation during the journey
andrew jackson
who was president when the trail of tears occurred?
louisiana purchase
louisiana territory was purchased from france for $15 million. this doubled the size of the US
thomas jefferson
who was president when the louisiana purchase took place?
mexican war
war between US and mexico, US won and gained texas, california, arizona, new mexico, nevada, utah, and part of colorado and wyoming
james polk
who was president during the mexican war?
william henry harrison
had the shortest presidency because he got a 2 hour inaugural speech in the cold without a coat, got a cold, then pneumonia, and died 1 month later
they wanted slavery
why did southern states secede from the union?
abraham lincoln
who was president during the succession of southern states?
ulysses s grant
Union general, wanted peace with Indians, lots of scandals during presidency because he gave unqualified friends high positions
robert e lee
general of confederate army
abraham lincoln
16th president during civil war, wanted to preserve and restore union, defeated confederacy, against slavery, freed slaves, assassinated by john wilkes booth
thaddeus stevens
leader of radical republicans, wanted harsh punishments for the south
andrew johnson
17th president, vice president when lincoln was killed, did not want harsh punishments for the south, vetoed a lot of laws passed by congress, impeached after violating the tenure of office act
radical republicans
group after civil war who believed the south should be harshly punished and wanted racial equality
ku klux klan
secret group created after the civil war that wanted whites to have power, violent against southern states, intimidated blacks out of their new freedoms
freedom's bureau
act administered by lincoln that helped former slaves get food, clothing, and jobs
indian removal act
allowed the president to grant land west of the mississippi to native americans, resulted in many indians being forced out of their homes
bill of rights
first 10 amendments of the constitution
1st amendment
amendment that protects freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
2nd amendment
amendment that gives the right to bear arms
3rd amendment
amendment that states no one can be forced to house soldiers
4th amendment
amendment that protects against unreasonable searches and seizures
5th amendment
amendment that gives rights to accused criminals so they do not have to say anything exposing themselves
6th amendment
amendment that gives the right to a speedy trial
7th amendment
amendment that gives the right to a trial for civil cases over $20
8th amendment
amendment that prohibits excessive bail or cruel punishment
9th amendment
amendment that protects the basic rights not written in the constitution
10th amendment
amendment that gives the rights to the states when they are not given to the federal government
tenure of office act
required the president to get approval from the senate before removing civil officers, passed to keep johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
black codes
laws passed in the south to restrict the rights of newly freed slaves
andrew johnson, violated the tenure of office act
which president was impeached and why?
13th amendment
amendment that abolished slavery
14th amendment
amendment that gave rights to all US citizens
15th amendment
amendment that declared citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or slavery
panic of 1837
financial crisis in the US where businesses went bankrupt, leading to unemployment, distress, and economic depression
tariff
tax on imported goods
manifest destiny
belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was justified and inevitable
attrition
wearing down over time
economic mobilization
process of changing the economy to efficiently use resources in an emergency. during war, this meant women had to run businesses and factories produced military supplies
unionist
a person who supported the union during the civil war, wanted to keep the union together
abolitionist
a person who wanted to end slavery in the US
border states
slaves states between the north and south that did not secede during the civil war
delaware, maryland, kentucky, missouri, west virginia
what were the 5 border states during the war?
total war
a war where a country devotes all of its resources to the war
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**be able to locate all 50 states on a map
1861-1865
what year did the civil war start and end?
fort sumter
where were the first shots of the civil war fired?
confederacy surrendered at appomattox, virginia
where did the surrender of the civil war take place?
submarines, rifles, telegraph, railroads
what were some critical technologies/developments during the civil war?
washington dc
what was the capital city of the union?
richmond
what was the capital city of the confederacy?
fought on home ground, had guns and horses
what advantages did the south have during the civil war?
more military power, more money
what advantages did the north have during the civil war?
veto
to reject a bill passed by a legislature
impeach
to charge for wrongdoing
president can veto, house of representatives can impeach
who has the power to make vetoes and impeaches?
amnesty
to pardon or forgive
jacob riis
muckraker who exposed poor conditions in the tenements of New York with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"
andrew carnegie
dominated the American steel industry, created the Bessemer process as a way to mass produce steel, used aspects of vertical integration, donated a lot of his money
john d rockafeller
started the Standard Oil Company, one of the richest people in modern history, had the most successful effort to control an entire market, bought out all of the integrating companies (horizontal integration)
JP morgan
a highly successful banker, bought Carnegie Steel and merged with other steel companies to create the United States Steel Corp
cornelius vanderbilt
built railroads, popularized the use of steel rails in his railroads, became wealthy from railroad shipping
thomas edison
invented the lightbulb, which made it possible to operate stores and factories at night. he was very determined and laid back
theodore roosevelt
26th president, improved working conditions, used big stick diplomacy, developed panama canal, wanted to save prehistoric sites, increased size of navy
william jennings bryan
face of populism, passionate speaker, pro bimetallism, ran for president against McKinley but lost, which destroyed the populist party
william mckinley
25th president, sent the USS maine to cuba, responsible for spanish-american war and philippine-american war, assassinated by leon czolgosz
muckrakers
journalists who attempted to find corruption and wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
labor unions
an organized association of workers formed to protect and further their rights and interests
spoils system
a system where people are appointed jobs based on their friendship with someone, rather than their skills and qualifications
philanthropist
a person who wants to improve the life of others, especially by the generous donation of money to good causes
populists
a party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted to represent the ideas and interests of ordinary people
nativism
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born
homestead act
provided 160 acres of land in the west to citizens willing to settle there and farm it for five years, encouraging westward migration
18th amendment
amendment that prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcohol
19th amendment
amendment that allowed women to vote
pendleton act
opposed the spoils system, stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds or be fired for political reasons
dawes act
removed Indian land from their possession and distributed it among individual indian families. designed to "americanize" indians and turn them into settled farmers
chinese exclusion act
prohibited immigration of chinese laborers
interstate commerce act
law passed to regulate the railroad industry and prevent monopolies in it, required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just"
the time period was good on the surface, but corrupt underneath
why was it called the gilded age?
mark twain
who created the term "gilded age?"
monopoly
complete control of a product or business by one person or group
trust
a group of corporations run by a single board of directors
bimetallism
a monetary system in which the government would give citizens two metals (gold and silver) rather than one as a standard at a ratio fixed by legislation
created more money, which was helpful for farmers who were suffering due to low prices of crops and high interest rates for borrowed money
why did bimetallism matter?
bessemer process
a method used to mass produce steel quickly and for a lower price
ellis island
destination for many immigrants
triangle shirtwaist factory fire
fire in a new york clothing factory that trapped young women workers inside, nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death while 100 died inside the factory
safety precautions
what was the result of the triangle shirtwaist factory fire?
social darwinism
the belief of evolution and "survival of the fittest"
many immigrants became political bosses and helped other immigrants get citizenship
what part did immigrants tend to play for big businessmen and politicians?
the new colossus
poem by emma lazarus about the statue of liberty
imperialism
growing a country's power by taking over land to dominate the trade and government of other lands
annexation of hawaii, acquisition of alaska, desire for military strength
what are some examples of US imperialism before WWI?
spheres of influence
areas where countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly
big stick diplomacy, which was an extension of the monroe doctrine
what was the extension of the sphere of influence? slogan/phrase used to describe it?
military strength, economic growth, cultural superiority
3 main reasons for imperialism
got it from russia for $0.02 per acre
how did the US gain alaska?
monarchy was overthrown
how did the US gain hawaii?
sinking of USS maine
what caused the spanish-american war?
led the rough riders in the battle of san juan hill, defeated spain and was considered a hero
what was teddy roosevelt's role in the spanish-american war?
helped the US become a world power and gain land, led to the end of the spanish empire
what was the significance of the spanish-american war?
white man's burden
poem by rudyard kipling, justified imperialism
created a waterway connecting pacific and atlantic so shipping was easier
why was the panama canal necessary?
czar nicholas II
leader of russia during WWI
president raymond poincare
leader of france during WWI
king george v
leader of great britain during WWI
president woodrow wilson
28th president, in office during WWI, wanted US to remain neutral, eventually declared war on germany, wanted to start the league of nations
kaiser wilhelm II
leader of germany during WWI
emperor franz josef
leader of austria-hungary during WWI
archduke franz ferdinand
heir to the austria-hungarian throne, assassinated in sarajevo by serbian extremist gavrilo princep, murder was a cause of WWI
gavrilo princip
member of serbian extremist group "black hand", murdered archduke ferdinand
russia, great britain, france
what countries were part of the triple entente?
serbia, belgium, greece, japan, italy, US
what countries were part of the allied powers?
germany, austria-hungary, ottoman empire, bulgaria
what countries were part of the central powers?
militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism (MAIN), assassination of archduke ferdinand
what were causes of the war in Europe? (MAIN, catalyst)
sinking of USS maine, lusitania, and sussex, zimmerman note, and wilson declared it was for the rights and freedom of people
why did the US join the great war?
zimmerman telegram
germany sends a note to the minister in mexico suggesting an alliance if the US enters the war, britain gets ahold of the note and americans find out
lusitania
british ship that sailed from new york to england and was shot by german torpedoes, some of which where americans
sussex pledge
germany promised to give adequate warning before sinking merchant and passenger ships, and to provide safety for the passengers and crew
sussex violation
germany decides to break the sussex pledge because they thought they could win the war using unrestricted submarine warfare before the US could even enter the war
fall of russia
russian withdrawal from WWI after they engage in a bloody civil war, monarchy is overthrown
selective service act
law passed by congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
sedition act
law made in 1918 that made it illegal to criticize the government
espionage act
1917 act that gave a penalty to disloyalty, false reports, or interference in the war effort
war in the atlantic
conflict between german submarines and allied navies in atlantic ocenas
U-boat
german submarine
atlantic blockade
effort made to reduce the amount of war materials brought to the central powers
american expeditionary force
US forces led by general john pershing who fought in WWI
general john j pershing
general of the american expeditionary force in WWI
doughboys
nickname given by the french for the inexperienced but fresh american soldiers during WWI
trench warfare
used in WWI, soldiers got trench foot and diseases from being close together, allowed large groups of people to be killed at once by putting mustard gas in an enemy trench
bolsheviks
a party of revolutionary marxists, led by vladimir lenin, who seized power in russia in 1917
wilson's 14 points
wilson's plan for peace after WWI, wanted to remove causes of conflict, protect ethnic groups, and create a league of nations
germany hoped it would pass so they would be forgiven, allies agreed to many points but wanted german reparations, americans did not want to be a part of european affairs
what was the response to wilson's 14 points?
treaty of versailles
treaty that ended WWI, had harsh punishments for germany
a lot of reparations
what were germany's consequences after WWI?
league of nations
an international organization that was created after WWI to provide a gathering for resolving international disputes. The goals of the organization included disarmament, preventing war with security, settling disputes through negotiation, diplomacy, and improving global welfare.
did not want to get involved with european affairs
what did the US think about the league of nations?
alliance
a formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate, joining together for a common purpose
propoganda
information, usually biased or misleading, that is used to promote or publicize a political cause or point of view
militarism
the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests
nationalism
the belief that the interests of a nation or state are of primary importance, and people who share a common language, history, and culture should constitute an independent nation
reparations
payments in money or materials by a nation defeated in war
no man's land
land between two opposing trenches that is unoccupied or under dispute, people usually died here
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**5 themes of social studies--understand what each theme states and be able to identify which theme a statement is an example of