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Chapter 14 Bio
Terms in this set (23)
What are the organs of the CNS and PNS?
CNS: Brain and Spinal Cord
PNS: Nerves and Ganglia
What is the structure of a neuron and neuroglia cells?
structure of neuron: cell body, dendrites, and axon.
neuroglia: oligodendrocytes, microglia cells, astrocytes.
What is the resting potential? What ions are located inside and outside the cell membrane?
Resting potential: when the axon is not conducting a nerve impulse.
- more positive ions outside than inside the membrane.
- more Na+ outside than inside.
What is a threshold stimulus?
Stimulus strong enough to initiate an impulse
What is action potential?
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
What happens in the synapse? What are pre- and postganglion fibers?
Release of a chemical that affects another cell.
What are neurotransmitters, and acetylcholine?
Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.
Acetylcholine: neurotransmitters that diffuses across a synapse and produces an impulse in the cell membrane of a muscle cell.
What is synaptic intergration?
Process by which multiple synaptic potentials combine within one postsynaptic neuron.
What is the structure and function of the spinal cord cross-section?
Function: to provide communication between the brain and most of the body.
What is ascending and descending tract?
Ascending: carry sensory signals up the spinal cord.
Descending: carry motor signals down the brainstem and spinal cord.
What are meninges?
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
What are the ventricles of the brain? What is the purpose of CSF?
Four major parts:
1. Cerebrum (two lateral ventricles)
2. Diencephalon (third ventricle)
3. Cerebellum (fourth ventricle)
4. Brain stem (fourth ventricle)
CSF: cushion brain, carries nutrients, carries away wastes, provides proper environment for neurons of the brain.
What are and where are the primary motor and sensory areas of cerebrum?
Primary motor: frontal lobe just anterior to central sulcus. Control of skeletal muscles.
Primary sensory: posterior to central sulcus in pariental lobe. cerebral cortex.
What are association areas?
a region of the cortex of the brain that connects sensory and motor areas, and that is thought to be concerned with higher mental activities.
What are the structures and functions of the diencephalon?
Hypothalamus: helps maintain homeostasis and controls pituitary gland.
Thalamus: two masses of gray matter that receives all sensory input except smell; involved in memory and emotions.
Pineal gland: secretes melatonin that controls our daily rhythms.
What is the function of the cerebellum?
- maintain posture
- coordinates voluntary movement
- allows learning of new motor skills
- balance and coordination
What is the function of the brain stem?
Connects the cerebrum to the spinal cord
What are the reflexes associated with the medulla oblongata?
Contains reflex centers for regulating breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure.
What and where are the limbic system and reticular formation of CNS?
Limbic System can cause strong emotional reactions to situations but conscious thought can override and direct our behavior.
Reticular Formation is the major component of the reticular activating system (RAS) that regulates alertness.
What is the somatic system of the PNS? What organs does it affect?
Serves the skin, skeletal muscles and tendons.
What is the autonomic system of PNS? What organs does it affect?
Regulates the activity of involuntary muscles (cardiac and smooth) and glands.
What are the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the nervous system, and what are the neurotransmitters does each release?
Parasympathetic: counters the sympathetic system by bringing up a relaxed state by slowing down metabolism, heart rate, breathing, and returning other functions to normal.
Sympathetic: coordinates the body for the "fight or flight" response by speeding up metabolism, heart rate, and breathing while slowing down and regulating other functions.
How does alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, heroine, and marijuana affect the nervous system?
Alcohol: denatures proteins and causes damage to tissue such as the brain and liver; chronic consumption can damage the frontal lobe.
Nicotine: increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Cocaine: in hyperactivity, little desire for food and sleep, and increased sex drive.
Heroine: nausea, vomiting, and depression of the respiratory and circulatory systems.
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