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Chapter 9 Radiology
Terms in this set (72)
pattern of stored energy on the exposed film cannot be seen and is reffered to as _______________
During processing, a chemical reaction occurs, and the halide portion of the exposed, energized silver halide crystal is removed. chemically this is referred to as ______
the reduction of energized, eposed silver halide crystals into black metallic silver, while unenerfized, unexposed silver halide crystals are removed from the film.
a film placed in a chemical known as ____ for a specific amount of time and at a specific temperature.
The second solution that the film is placed in to for a specific amount of time
structure is one that readily permits the passage of the x-ray beam and allows more x-rays to reach the film. Black
structure is one that resists the passage of the x-ray beam and restricts or limits the amount of x-rays that reach the film. white
The first step in processing
a process that is necessary to remove the deveopler from film and stop the development process.
contains two chemicals, hydroquione and elon.
reduces the exposed silver halide crystals chemically to black matallic silver
generates the black tones and the sharp contrast of the radiographic image.
also known as metol, acts quickly to produce a visible radiographic image. generates the many shades of gray seen on a dental radiograph.
the preservative used in the developer solution.
to prevent the developer solution from oxidizing in the presence of air.
used in the developer solution as an accelerator
also called activator to activate the developing agents
the restrainer used in developing solution
to control the developer and to prevent it from developing the exposed and unexposed silver halide crystals.
also known as clearing agent; made up of sodium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate and is commonly called hypo.
the hardening agent used in the fixer solution
hardens and shrinks the gelatin in the film emulsion after it has been softened by tyhe accelerator in developer solution
acetic acid or sulfuric acid
the acidifer used in the fixer solution
neutralizes the alkaline developer
Use of the tank method in a dark room setting
a container divided into compartments to hold the developer solution, water bath, and fixer solution.
two removable 1 gallon tanks that hold the developer and fixer solutions
suspends both tinsert tanks and is filled with circulating water
water tempature is contrilled through a ___________.
used to determine the temperature of the developer solution
used to signal the radiographer that the films must be removed from the current processing solution.
necessary for manual processing. divice equipped with clips used to hold films during processing.
stirring rod or stirring paddle
necessary piece of equipmentfor manual processing. used to agitate the developer and fixer solutions before processing
a superconcentrated solution that is added to the processiong solutions to compensate for the loss of valume and strenght that results from oxidation.
or the process that occurs when develper and fixer solutions combine with ozygen and lose strength, takes place when the processing solutions are exposed to air.
simple way of processing dental x-ray films
essentaial piece of equipment required for automating processing.
encases all the compinent parts of the automatic processor
film feed slot
is and opening on the outside of the processor housing used to insert unwrapped films into automatic processor
roller film transporter
system of rollers used to move the film rapidly throught the developer, fixer, water, and drying compartments.
holds the developer solution
holds the fixer solution
holds circulating water
holds heated air and is used to dry the wet film
used to maintain proper solution concentration and levels automatically in some automatic processors.
film recovery slot
an opening on the outside of the processor housing where the dry, processed radiograph emerges from automatic processor
removes ant residual gelatin or dirt from rollers
provides completely darkened environment in which x-ray film can be handled and processed to produce diagnostic radiographs
often used to describe the darkroom.
any white light that "leaks" into the dark room
a special type of lighing used to provide illumination in the darkroom
removes the short wavelengths in the blue -green protion of the visible light spectrum that are responsable for exposing and damaging x-ray film.
darkroom work space
include an adequate counter area where film can be unwrapped before processing
darkroom storage space
must include ample room for chemical processing solutions, film cassettes, and other miscellaneous radiographic supplies
must be contolled to prevent film damage. a room tempatrue of 70-90 degrees is recommended. humidityof 50%- 70% should be maintained.
must include both hot and cold running water along with mixing valves to adjust the water temperature in the processing tanks.
provides a diffused light source that evenly exposes the special duplicating film.
result from inadequate development time, inaccurate timer, low developer temp, inaccurate thermometer, depleted or contaminated developer solution
result from excess development time, inaccurate timer, hight develper temp, inaccurate thermometer, concentrated developer solution
reticulation of emulsion
a film is subjected to a sudden temperature change between the developer solution and the water bath.
seen when the developer solutin comes in contact with the film before processing
the result of fixer solution coming in contact with the film before processing.
result from use of exhased developer or fixer
insufficient fixation time, insufficient rinsing
results from low level of developer solution and represents and underdeveloped portion of the film
results from low level of fixer solution and represents and unfixed portion of the film
occur when two films come into contact with each other during maual or automatic processing techniques.
seen when air is trapped on the film surface after the film is placed in the processing solution.
seen when the film emulsion is damaged by the operater fingernail during rough handling of the film.
seen when the film has been touched by fingers contaminatied with fluoride or the developer.
may result from opening packet quickly, opening film packet before toughting another object.
when the soft film emulsion is removed from the film base by a sharp object, such as a film clip or film hanger.
gray; lack of detail and contrast
results from - improper lighting or light leaks
high developer temp
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