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22 terms

Chp 11- Urinary System Diseases

Chp 11- Urinary System Diseases
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acute glomerulonephritis
Immune-complex disease, inflammation of the glomeruli which most commonly follows a group A hemolytic streptococcal infection or a pneumococcal infection of the throat or skin; coffee-colored urine
chronic glomerulonephritis
Progressive disease-->kidney tissue atrophy; fewer nephrons working correctly-->renal failure due to glomerular damage; uremic frost
uremic frost
presence of crystals on the skin; late sign of waste products building up in the blood (uremia)
Nephrotic Syndrome
loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of the glomerular membrane; loss of large amounts of plasma protein resulting in systemic edema; Protein-losing kidney
Acute Renal Failure
clinical syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in renal function with progressive azotemia and increasing levels of serum creatinine; most common manifestation of nephrotoxic damage; rate may be increasing due to use of medications; caused by congestive heart failure, urethral blockage, damage to glomerular and tubule cells, tubular blockage, vasocontriction; caused by diminished blood flow to kidney
nephrotoxic
toxic to the kidney
Chronic Renal Failure
Characterized by prolonged symptoms and signs of uremia, is the end result of all chronic renal diseases; usually not reversible, severe loss of nephrons (no regeneration)
azotemia
accumulation in the blood of nitrogen-bearing waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney. one of the most common types of kidney disease. may be result of a lower urinary tract infection that moved up to the kidney by way of the ureters. may be large quantities of white blood cells and bacteria in the urine. blood in urine may be present. can occur with any untreated or persistent case of cystitis; CAUSED BY WIPING THE WRONG WAY, spreading fecal matter to the urinary meatus
pyuria
Presence of pus in the urine
hydonephrosis
Dilation of the renal pelvis due to obstruction of urinary outflow; signs- vague backache and diminished urine output
Renal Calculi
(Kidney Stones) high concentrations of solutes in urine trigger crystalization in renal pelvis. calcium, magnesium, uric acid. alkaline urine is a contributing factor
Cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder, E. coli
Urethritis
Inflammation of the urethra, E. coli
Diabetic Nephropathy
accumulation of damage to the glomerulus capillaries due to the chronic high blood sugars of diabetes mellitus
glomerulosclerosis
severe kidney disease in which glomerular function is lost as fibous scar tissue replaces the glomeruli
Polycystic Kidney Disease
kidney disease characterized by enlarged kidneys containing many cysts
Neurogenic Bladder
condition in which the nervous control of the urinary bladder is impaired, causing abnormal or obstructed flow of urine from the body, Impaired neurologic fxn: can't feel the bladder and the sensation; may effect ability to achieve erection
Stress Incontinence
the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing; Is leakage caused by a sudden increase in intrabdominal pressure (as occurs with sneezing or coughing).
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the kidney occuring in adulthood
Bladder Tumors
involves the transitional epithelium that lines the entire renal pelvis but normally involves the bladder, characterized by intermittent painless hematuria
BUN
blood urea nitrogen