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Terms in this set (80)
HOFSTEDE'S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS
Reflects the degree to which hierarchy and unequal distributions of power are accepted.
Reflects the degree of comfort with ambiguous situations and the extent to which efforts have been made to minimize or avoid these situations.
Reflects the degree to which tough and assertive behavior is encouraged.
This dimension reflects the degree to which short-term pain is accepted in return for long-term gain.
Reflects the degree to which personal independence is valued over group membership.
BIG FIVE PERSONALITY
being curious, original, intellectual, creative, and open to new ideas
being organized, systematic, punctual, achievement oriented, and dependable
Being outgoing, talkative, sociable, and enjoying social situations
being affable, tolerant, sensitive, trusting, kind, and warm
being anxious, irritable, temperamental, and moody
Which personality best fits: CUSTOMER SERVICE POSITIONS
High emotional stability
Openness to experience
Which personality best fits: MANAGERS
Which personality best fits: LESS ABSENTEEISM
Introverted (Low Extraversion)
Which personality best fits: HIGHEST PERFORMERS
High in conscientiousness
Which personality best fits: MORE DEVIANT BEHAVIOR
Which personality best fits: BETTER UNDER PRESSURE
Internal Locus of Control
You make things happen.
"look what I can do!"
"I can determine my future."
External Locus of Control
Things happen to you
"why does everything happen to me?"
What are hertzberg's two factors theories?
Hygiene and Motivators
Prevents Job Dissatisfaction
-Policies and procedures
-Compensation and benefits
Promotes Job Satisfaction
-Feedback and Recognition
-Responsibility and Self Management
-Interest in the task
Management by Objectives
Step One: Manager and employee sit down and discuss possible goals (The employee letter)
Step Two: Collectively set overall SMART goals that align with corporate goals
Step Three: Develop tactical goals that lead to the accomplishment of the overall goals
Step Four: Meet regularly to discuss goal accomplishment and progress
360 Degree Cons
-Raters need training on how to effectively rate their peers
-360's that aren't followed up on tend to be very ineffective
360 Degree Pros
-Negative feedback is more credible when it comes from multiple sources
-When 360's are coupled with active employee/manager discussions and followup, they are effective for changing performance
The person uses demands, threats, or intimidation to convince you to comply with a request or to support a proposal
Example: "If you don't do this, you're fired. You have until 5:00 to change your mind, or I'm going without you."
The person seeks to persuade you that the request is approved by higher management or appeals to higher management for assistance in gaining your compliance with the request
Example: "I'm reporting you to my boss. My boss supports this idea."
The person makes an explicit or implicit promise that you will receive rewards or tangible benefits if you comply with a request or support a proposal or reminds you of a prior favor to be reciprocated
Example: "You owe me a favor. I'll take you to lunch if you'll support me on this."
The person seeks aid of others to persuade you to do something or uses the support of others as an argument for you to agree also.
Example: "All the other supervisors agree with me. I'll ask you in front of the whole committee."
The person seeks to get you in a good mood or to think favorably of him or her before asking you to do something.
Example: "Only you can do this job right. I can always count on you, so I have another request."
The person uses logical arguments and factual evidence to persuade you that a proposal or request is viable and likely to result in the attainment of task objectives.
Example: "This new procedure will save us $150,000 in overhead. It makes sense to hire John; he has the most experience."
The person makes an emotional request or proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your values and ideals or by increasing your confidence that you can do it.
Example: "Being environmentally conscious is the right thing. Getting that account will be tough, but I know you can do it."
The person seeks your participation in making a decision or planning how to implement a proposed policy, strategy, or change
Example: "This new attendance plan is controversial. How can we make it more acceptable? What do you think we can do to make our workers less fearful of the new robots on the production line?"
Most Frequently Used Influence Tactics
Which influence tactics are best for getting support from peers or superiors?
Rational Persuasion and Coalition
Which influence tactics are best for gaining support and resources for a new project?
Consultation and Inspirational Appeals
Which influence tactic is the most effective?
Which influence tactic is the least effective?
Ohio State/ Michigan Leaderships Studies
Initiating Structure and Task-Focused
-Developing policies/ procedures
Consideration and Relationship Oriented
-Maintaining good relations
-Enhancing group involvement and participation
(Bottom Right) S1
(Top Right) S2
(Top Left) S3
Moderate - High Competence
(Bottom Left) S4
4 Components of Transformational Leadership
Transformational leaders are admired, respected, and trusted. Followers look up to leaders and want to emulate their behavior
Followers are encouraged to be innovative and express new and challenging ideas, question assumptions, and reframe problems. Creativity is stimulated.
Leaders motive and inspire their followers through enthusiasm, optimism, and passion. Leaders clearly articulate a vision and help followers see where they are going
Follower's needs are attended to and leaders listen to their followers. Two-way communication is practiced and a leader accepts the individual differences of followers.
Core Job Dimensions
Degree to which the job requires the person to do different things and use varying abilities and skills
Does a person do the job from the beginning to the end and see a visible outcome
Does this job have a significant impact on others?
Amount of freedom, independence and discretion the person has in scheduling work, decision making, and determining how to do the job
Degree to which the job provides the person with clear and direct information about job outcomes or performance
A state of tension produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior
Is the work that employees do to control their feelings and expression of emotions in the workspace and is a type of emotion regulation
Is the ability to recognize and manage emotion in oneself and in others
the practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility.
A debate between two opposing sets of recommendations
The extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations
A transparent barrier that keeps women from rising above a certain level in organizations
improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
Nominal Group Technique
A structured approach to group decision making that focuses on generating alternatives and choosing one
Sunk Cost Bias
A cognitive bias in which past investments of time, effort, and/or money are heavily weighted in deciding on continued investment.
To select the first alternative that is "good enough" because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimize
a theory that suggests that our behavior is based on maximizing benefits and minimizing costs
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
Is a social exchange process approach to motivation that focuses on the interaction between an individual and the environment
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
the tendency, in making judgments, to rely on the first piece of information encountered or information that comes most quickly to mind
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Going beyond normal expectations to improve operations of the organization, as well as defending the organization and being loyal to it
Type A Personality
A complex of personality and behavioral characteristics, including competitiveness, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostility, and a quest for achievements
A healthy, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others
Zone of Indifference
The range in which attempts to influence a person will be perceived as legitimate and will be acted on without a great deal of thought
An elusive power that is based on interpersonal attraction
Modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors
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