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nerve fibers that release norepinephrine

Adrenergic fibers

any of a number of proliferative and degenerative changes in the arteries leading to their decreased elasticity


self-directed; self-regulating; independent


efferent division of the peripheral nervous system that innervates cardiac and smooth muscles and glands; also called the involuntary or visceral motor system

Autonomic Nervous System

nerve endings, that, upon stimulus, release acetylcholine

Cholinergic fibers

the 12 nerve pairs that arise from the brain

Cranial nerves

graphic record of the electrical activity of nerve cells in the brain


bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue


collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS


nerves containing the processes of motor and sensory neurons; their impulses travel to and from the CNS

Mixed nerves.

paralysis of the lower limbs


a division of the autonomic nervous system; also referred to as the craniosacral division

Parasypathetic division.

portion of the nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia that lie outside of the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system.

a network of converging and diverging nerve fibers, blood vessels, or lymphatics


automatic motor neuron that has its cell body in the CNS and projects its axon to a peripheral ganglion

Preganglionic neuron

automatic motor neuron that has its cell body in a peripheral ganglion and projects its axon to an effector

Postganglionic neuron

paralysis of all four extremities


branch of a nerve, artery, vein, or bone


the 31 nerve pairs that arise from the spinal cord

Spinal nerves

a division of the ANS; called the "fight-or-flight" division

Sympathetic division

Vagus Nerve

Besides the accessory nerve, which pair of cranial neves extends beyond the head and neck?

Dorsalroot ganglion

The cell bodies of sensory neurons whose fibers enter the cord by the dorsal root are found in the

CNS; in ganglia in the PNS

The motor portions of the ANS, sympathetic and parasympathetic, are characterized by a two-neuron chain. The preganglionic nerve cell is found in the ________ and the postganglionic nerve cell body is found _________.

VII Facial, IX Glossopharyngeal, and XII Hypoglossal

Damage to which cranial nerve(s) may impair the sense of taste?


What is the term for a nerve that contains both afferent and efferent neurons


Which cranial nerve innervates the inner ear

Emegency Situations and Fight or flight situations

Which of the following is controlled by sympathetic innervation?

Inside, white matter on the outside, and a dorsal motor root

The spinal cord has gray matter on the

Organs and by short postganglionic fibers

The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia near the

Dilation of the pupils

Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation

Common fibular and tibial nerves

The sciatic nere is the largest nerve in the body, resulting from a combination of which two nerves

Despie some neuronal loss, an unlimited number of neural pathways are available and ready to be developed, therefore, additional learning can occu throughout life.

Which one of the following statements about aging is the most accurate

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