12 terms

Genetics

The Science 7 vocabulary needed to understand the concepts taught in Standard III: Students will understand that offspring inherit traits that make them more or less suitable to survive in the environment.
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid; the genetic information found in the nucleus; the instruction manual for the body.
Genes
a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
Chromosomes
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Acquired trait
developed during life; for example: learning to ride a bike or play the piano.
Inherited trait
traits received from your biological parents; for example: natural eye color, blood type, skin color.
Asexual reproduction
a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only; for example, bacteria, planaria, cuttings form house plants.
Sexual reproduction
a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from two parents (egg and sperm), and inherit the genes of both parents; for example, llamas, humans, sunflowers.
Offspring
the children
Natural selection
the process where the organisms that are best suited for an environment survive and pass on their genes to their offspring.
Artificial selection
Human select for specific traits; for example, dog breeds, cows that produce more milk, larger pumpkins.
Mutation
permanent, transmissible (can be passed on to offspring) changes to the genetic material (DNA) of an organism.
Adaptation
a change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment. (remember the peppered moths??)
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