20 terms

CH 8 AP Psych

classical conditioning
by learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea shells demonstrate the process of _____________.
operant conditioning
by pushing vending machine buttons, children often learn that this action is associated with the delivery of a candy bar
associative learning
when people pressed their arms upward instead of downward while observing unfamiliar chinese symbols, they subsequently rated these stimuli more positively
unconditioned response
sweating in hot water
Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend, but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother
unconditioned stimulus
in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeadtly presented with a loud noise
In Pavlov's experiments on the salvary conditioning of the dogs, the UCS was:
the presentation of food in dog's mouth
The occurance of spontaneous recovery suggests that during the ________ is _________.
CR; supresed
Garcia & Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by:
biological predispositions
Humans most easily develop a conditioned aversion to alcohol if its task is associated with a:
nausea-producing food
According to B.F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by:
external influences
Every Saturday morning Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car; washing the car is a:
positive reinforcer
Bedwetting is most likely to occur during:
slow wave sleep
Brian waves associated with REM Sleep are like:
Stage 1 Sleep
Rescorla and Wagner
demonstrated that classical conditioning occurs best when the association between a CS and UCS is cognitive expectancy
Garcia and Koelling
studies of conditioned taste aversion demonstrated that animals are biologically primed to learn to associate certain CSs with certain UCSs
work showed that: virtually all organisms can learn to adapt to their environment; how significant internal process, such as learning could be studied objectively; provided a basis for the behaviorists' idea that human behavior consists, in part, of stimulus response connections
John Watson
stated the original behaviorist philosophy; that psychology should be an objective science that studied only observable behaviors and avoided references to all mental processes
argued that by studying how organisms respond to stimuli in their environments, psychologists would eventually become able to understand, predict, and control behavior
Pavlov, Watson, and the early behaviorists
underestimated the importance of cognitive processes and biological constraints on learning