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classical conditioning

by learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea shells demonstrate the process of _____________.

operant conditioning

by pushing vending machine buttons, children often learn that this action is associated with the delivery of a candy bar

associative learning

when people pressed their arms upward instead of downward while observing unfamiliar chinese symbols, they subsequently rated these stimuli more positively

unconditioned response

sweating in hot water


Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend, but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother

unconditioned stimulus

in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeadtly presented with a loud noise

In Pavlov's experiments on the salvary conditioning of the dogs, the UCS was:

the presentation of food in dog's mouth

The occurance of spontaneous recovery suggests that during the ________ is _________.

CR; supresed

Garcia & Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by:

biological predispositions

Humans most easily develop a conditioned aversion to alcohol if its task is associated with a:

nausea-producing food

According to B.F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by:

external influences

Every Saturday morning Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car; washing the car is a:

positive reinforcer

Bedwetting is most likely to occur during:

slow wave sleep

Brian waves associated with REM Sleep are like:

Stage 1 Sleep

Rescorla and Wagner

demonstrated that classical conditioning occurs best when the association between a CS and UCS is cognitive expectancy

Garcia and Koelling

studies of conditioned taste aversion demonstrated that animals are biologically primed to learn to associate certain CSs with certain UCSs


work showed that: virtually all organisms can learn to adapt to their environment; how significant internal process, such as learning could be studied objectively; provided a basis for the behaviorists' idea that human behavior consists, in part, of stimulus response connections

John Watson

stated the original behaviorist philosophy; that psychology should be an objective science that studied only observable behaviors and avoided references to all mental processes


argued that by studying how organisms respond to stimuli in their environments, psychologists would eventually become able to understand, predict, and control behavior

Pavlov, Watson, and the early behaviorists

underestimated the importance of cognitive processes and biological constraints on learning

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