U.S. History Chapter 20 Test: Society After World War II
chapter 20 review study guide questions
Terms in this set (54)
What was the Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944?
GI Bill of Rights
provided pensions and government loans to help veterans start businesses and buy homes or farms.
What did the GI Bill of Rights provide for students?
gave student grants to veterans to attend college
How did the GI Bill of Rights affect college enrollment?
number of college graduates increased
What was the Employment Act of 1946?
promoted full employment and production
established the Council of Economic Advisers that discussed economic policy with the president
What did President Truman do to avoid postwar depression?
cancelled $23 billion in military contracts
Factories that were making military weapons began producing consumer goods
How was agriculture affected after World War II?
agricultural production in foreign countries decreased
United States food exports increased
How did the government assist veterans with employment?
veterans were given priority in hiring
many workers lost their jobs to returning veterans
What was the Fair Employment Practices Committee?
helped prevent job discrimination
What did the government encourage women to do after World War II?
encouraged women to quit their jobs
women who did not quit their jobs were fired
What happened to the cost of goods after World War II?
wartime price controls were lifted and prices increased
What did workers do after World War II?
went on strike demanding better wages and improved working conditions
Which strikes were critical to the economy forcing President Truman to take control of the strikes?
Coal Miner's Strike
What was the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947?
reduced the strength of organized labor
gave judges the power to end strikes
outlawed closed-shop agreements
What was the Committee on Civil Rights created in 1946?
committee that examined racial issues
What was Truman's executive orders in 1948 that outraged White Southerners?
banned racial discrimination in the military and federal hiring
ended racial discrimination in companies holding government contracts
What was the focus of Truman's agenda that got him reelected in 1948?
civil rights and the economy
What was involved in Truman's Fair Deal?
1. extended Social Security benefits
2. raised the minimum wage
3. approved programs to rebuild slums
4. expanded programs for flood control
How did President Eisenhower cut billions of dollars from the national debt in his first term?
1. eliminated thousands of government jobs
2. cut farm subsidies
3. gave federal coastal lands to the states
What programs did President Eisenhower increase?
1. Social Security benefits
2. unemployment benefits
3. increased minimum wage
What did Eisenhower establish to benefit education?
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
During the 1950's, how did companies prosper?
1. small companies merged with larger corporations
2. invented machines that could perform industrial operations faster
How did automation affect companies?
1. increased production
2. decreased manufacturing jobs
As manufacturing jobs decreased, what jobs increased?
How did changes in the workforce affect unions?
union membership increased
What did unions successfully negotiate?
1. guaranteed annual wages
2. automatic pay raises linked to inflation
Where did newly-prosperous workers move to in the 1950's?
suburbs into planned communities
What did housing developers do to save time and money?
used the same floor plan to build houses
What was the Highway Act of 1956?
expanded the nation's highway system making it easier for home owners to commute
How did the end of World War II affect marriages?
people got married at younger ages and had more children
How did the 1950's affect working mothers?
working mothers increased as 2 paychecks were necessary to achieve middle-class income
How did suburban norms pressure families?
1. buy the same consumer items
2. children participate in the same social activities
What was the most popular form of entertainment for families in the 1950's?
What affected television programming and influenced consumer habits?
What did American teenagers in the 1950's do with the extra time and more money to spend?
watched television that glamorized rebellion against suburban conformity
What music was popular in the 1950's because it was rebellious music?
Rock n' Roll
What 1954 Supreme Court case challenged the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision?
Brown vs. the Board of Education
What was the Supreme Court decision of Brown vs. Board of Education?
unanimous ruling that declared racial segregation was illegal in public schools (Separate but Equal can never be equal)
How did the Brown vs. Board of Education affect the South?
integration of African Americans in public schools moved slowly due to resistance.
Where were the first African American students integrated in public schools?
Little Rock, Arkansas (known as the Little Rock Nine)
What did President Eisenhower do for the Little Rock Nine when they met violent resistance?
ordered 1,000 federal troops to protect them
Who was the first African American student to graduate from public school in 1958?
How did Governor Faubus react to racial integration in 1958?
ordered a shutdown of the Little Rock public school system and established private schools to instruct white students.
How did the courts respond to Governor Faubus's actions of closing the public schools?
forced the schools to reopen under a court order and began to desegregate
What did Rosa Parks do in 1955?
refused to give up her seat to a white passenger and was arrested
How did African Americans react to Rosa Parks being arrested?
50,000 African Americans organized a boycott against the bus system
What did the Supreme Court decide in 1956 regarding the bus system?
Supreme Court overruled Montgomery segregation laws.
What was the Civil Rights Act of 1957?
allowed qualified people to vote regardless of race
What was the League of United Latin American Citizens?
group directly involved in ending segregation for Hispanic Americans
What happened to Felix Longoria in 1948 that sparked Hispanic Americans fighting against discrimination?
Felix Longoria was a Mexican American soldier killed in World War II whose family was not able to use the chapel he attended for his funeral because he was Mexican
What happened when Congress repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1952?
increased the immigration of Asian Americans to the United States.
What was the Relocation Act of 1956?
promoted the assimilation of American Indians into mainstream society and encouraged them to move to urban cities
What did President Eisenhower do in 1958 to American Indians?
decided not to terminate Indian Reservations without the tribes consent.
Who represented the poorest segment of the United States population in the 1950's?
foreign countries imported less food from the United States as they recovered from World War II.
Why did many farm workers have difficulty finding jobs?
increased use of farm technology (tractors) allowed farm owners to operate with fewer workers