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ENSC 001 Final Review Pt 3
Terms in this set (62)
what does the formula for accounting for dispersal mean?
r= (b-d) + (i-e)
r= growth rate
b= birth rate
d= death rate
I= immigration rate
e= emigration rate
What does "zero population growth" mean?****
when the birth rate equals the death rate
why has human population growth sharply increased?****
- due to decreased in death rate, not increase in birth rate
- greater food production
- better medical care
- improvements in water quality and sanitation
why has growth rate (r)- or slope of the curve- hast started to decrease?
- will continue to decline until "zero population growth"
- j-curve will be eventually replaced by a s-curve once human population reaches carrying capacity of the environment
-currently uncertain what the carrying capacity of the earth is for humans
what are the demographic stages?****
2. transitional stage
3. industrial stage
4. post-industrial stage
what is pre-industrial stage?
birth and death rates high, modest population growth
what is transitional stage?
lowered death rate, rapid population growth
what is industrial stage?
birth rate decline, slow population growth
what is post-industrial stage?
low birth and death rates, very slow population growth
An age structure shaped like a pyramid is characteristic of a country with which type of population growth?****
highly developing countries
What countries have the highest food insecurity?****
- South Asia
- sub-saharan africa
what are the characteristics of urban population?
- diverse population in terms of race, ethnicity, religion and socioeconomic status
-younger population in cities rater than local rural area (influx b/c of job opportunities)
-more males in cities in developing nations
-more females in cities in developed nations
what are megacities ?****
with over 10 million inhabitants
what is urban agglomeration?
urbanized core region that consists of several adjacent cities or megacities and their surrounding developed suburbs
Where is urbanization increasing rapidly?
- in developing countries
-9 of 10 largest cities in the world are in emerging and developing countries
(top one still being Tokyo, Japan)
what are brownfield?
urban areas of abandoned industrial or residential sites that may be contaminated from past due
(most cities have many block of abandoned brownfield)
what affects a city's spatial structure?*****
transportation availability, they expand along public transportation routes
what is green architecture ?****
- rise of architecture that is sustainable, and even positive to surrounding environment
what are some examples of green architecture?
1. wastewater recycling
2. efficient lighting
3. sustainable building materials
which of the following does not represent a "green architecture" feature?****
using recycled water form toilets
which energy source is completely clean?*****
no energy sources are truly clean
what are the four human activities that require energy?
3. residential and commercial
4. electric power
Which countries have the lowest GDP per capita?
which country has the highest GDP per capita?****
what accounts for majority of of consumption in the U.S?****
transportation and electric power account for 68% of total consumption
what does LACE stand for?
Levelized Avoided Costs of Electricity
what does LCOE stand for?
Levelized Costs of Electricity
What is an example of an intermittent energy source?***
which of the following source is the most competitive IN COST****
what is an example of an incentive (encourage consumers to modify their level and pattern of electricity) for electric power companies & energy efficiency? (DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT)***
- decrease demand for electricity
- cats rewards/incentives to consumers who install energy-efficient technologies
- energy companies may give away free energy-efficicient appliances, light bulbs, etc.
- benefits both consumers and electric company
what are fossil fuels?
combustible deposits in the Earth's crust
-composed of the remnants (fossils) of prehistoric orgs that existed millions of years ago
-includes coal, oil (petroleum) and natural gas
how much energy is supplied to US from fossil fuels?
what is a non-renewable source?
fossil fuels are created too slowly to replace the reserves we use
how are fossil fuels formed?
1. coal: heat, pressure, and time turned plants material into carbon-rich rock
2. oil: large numbers of microscopic aquatic orgs dies and settled in the sediments
3. natural gas: formed the same way as oil, but at temperatures higher than 100c
(not by oxygen!!)-----> answer ****
Global carbon cycle
as we burn more fossil fuels over time we just move it around the environment (more carbon in the ground & more around environment)
What three contributors to more C02?
- natural gas
How is the coal in the US?
- has 25% of the world coal
- estimated coal reserves can last roughly 200 yrs -----> answer***
- highly flammable
- burning and mining releases pollutants
Who has the most goal gas reserves (shale)****
How much will natural gas account for in the US in 2040?****
- nuclear 16%
The ANGA emphasizes which of the following benefits on behalf of the natural gas industry?
-high efficient and low capital investment
all of the above
US EPAs modeling scenarios for subsurface migration of fracturing fluid and released gas
two models that got developed & the two are equally reliable
the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974
provides the US EPA authority to protect public health by regulating the nation's public drinking water supply
-Natural gas industry got away with drilling and leaking gas bc of the safe drinking water act-----> answer ***
What is a non-renewable source?
- an energy source that is used but not recreated
what are example of non-renewable sources?
- fossil fuels: oil/petroleum; natural gas; coal
- non-fossil fuels: uranium ore (nuclear energy)
what are renewable sources?
en energy source that can be easily replenished
what is an example of a renewable source ?
(nuclear is NOT an alternative renewable source)----> answer
What are the advantages of a renewable source?
what are the disadvantage of a renewable source?
Who has the the most direct solar energy?
solar technologies include?
1. photovoltaic cells
2. solar power towers
3. solar thermal collectors
what is photovoltaic solar cells?
a wafer or tin film that is treated with certain metals so that they generate electricity when they absorb solar energy
which of the following is not a photovoltaic source?
What are the disadvantage of photovoltaic solar cells?
- the start up cost is high
- efficiency is very low
- output need very much areas of land
Indirect solar energy consist of ?
1. biomass:------> answer
2. wind energy
what is a biomass?
plant materials, such as wood, crop wastes and animal waste, used as fuel
what is wind energy?
electric or mechanical energy obtained from surface air currents caused by solar warming of air
what is hydropower?
form of renewable energy reliant on flowing or falling water to generate mechanical energy or electricity
What can biomass be converted to?
can convert to biogas or liquids (ethanol and methanol)
Greenhouse Gas Emissions of transportation fuels
ethanol converted from sugarcane can reduce greenhouse gas emissions a lot
what are some problems with wind energy?-----> question
-environmental: potential to adversely affect birds and bats
-costs and public resistance
Geothermal resource of the US
Most geothermal sites are on the west coast
-if we were to switched to geothermal US will be in a good place
which fossil fuels contribute to global warming?
all fossil fuels contribute to global warming
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