Upgrade to remove ads
Key points part 4
Terms in this set (30)
An asthma episode may range in severity from mild to life threatening, depending on the degree of airway obstruction. With intense narrowing of the?
bronchi, severe hypoxemia may result.
Nonallergic (intrinsic) asthma is precipitated by?
Exercise, stress, and exposure to pulmonary irritants, but no specific allergen can be identified.
Drugs such as aspirin and exposure to occupational allergens have also been identified as?
Allergic (extrinsic) asthma is mediated by?
IgE, which is produced in response to specific antigens.
The IgE binds to mast cells and causes them to release inflammatory chemicals in response to?
Skin testing may be helpful in identifying?
Prevention of asthma attacks is an important part of therapy. Avoidance of precipitating factors and use of?
Prophylactic drug therapy are recommended.
Bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy are mainstays of treatment for an?
Acute bronchitis results from temporary inflammation of the?
(acute bronchitis) Inflammation may be due to?
viral, bacterial, fungal, or chemical causes.
(Acute bronchitis) Symptoms are caused by narrowing of inflamed airways and increased?
mucus production. Dyspnea on exertion and cough are common.
Chronic bronchitis is an inflammatory disorder of the airways that most commonly results from?
long-term cigarette smoking.
Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough lasting more than?
3 months per year for 2 or more consecutive years. Resultant airway damage is not reversible.
Chronic bronchitis is associated with?
Persistent narrowing of the airways attributable to chronic inflammation, scarring, and excessive mucus production.
Chronic bronchitis blood gases are characterized by?
Low Pao2 and high PaCO2 values.
Persistent hypoxemia causes a compensatory increase in?
Red blood cell production (polycythemia). Cyanosis may be evident.
Alveolar hypoxia leads to?
Generalized pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular hypertrophy (cor pulmonale) in the person with chronic bronchitis.
Right-sided heart failure may occur because of the?
high pulmonary resistance.
The management of chronic bronchitis centers on removing the?
Etiologic factors (e.g., cigarette smoke), providing bronchodilator therapy, removing secretions, preventing respiratory muscle fatigue, and providing low-dose supplemental oxygen.
High-dose oxygen must be used cautiously because it may increase what?
V̇A/Q̇ imbalance and PaCO2 levels in some patients.
Emphysema is a form of COPD that results from?
Destruction of alveoli and small airways.
Emphysema occurs primarily in cigarette smokers and is often seen in association with?
Emphysema causes two major problems with respiration:
(1) A decrease in surface area for gas exchange and
(2) Airway collapse attributable to loss of radial traction.
Airway collapse is greater on expiration, resulting in air trapping and hyperinflation.
Emphysema is characterized by?
Dyspnea; weight loss; use of accessory muscles to breathe; a low, flat diaphragm; and a barrel chest.
Obstructive disorders are associated with increased resistance to airflow, particularly during?
Bronchiectasis is associated with recurrent inflammation of the?
Bronchial walls, chronic cough, and aneurysm-like dilatations of the bronchioles.
Cystic fibrosis is an?
Autosomal-recessive disorder of exocrine glands and mucus cells. Secretions are excessively thick because of insufficient chloride and water transport.
With complete obstruction,
No movement of air occurs, even though inspiratory efforts may be observed.
Partial airway obstruction is associated with
Wheezing, retractions, and stridor. Treatment centers on removing the obstruction, if possible, or creating a patent airway by a tracheostomy.
Epiglottitis is a medical emergency. H. influenzae type B, the primary organism associated with epiglottitis, invades the supraglottic structures (epiglottis and arytenoids), causing?
Inflammation and edema, leading to obstruction.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Patho (KEY POINTS) Part one
Patho key points part 2
Key points patho part 3
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 22 Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders
Patho Exam III Respiratory Chapter 22
Chapter 22: Obstructive Pulmonary Disord…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Cranial Nerves ATI
ATI Lab values (Adults)
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
anatomy exam 3
Musculo exam 2: hip biomechanics
audit learnsmart review exam 1