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Unit 1 History and Perspectives
Terms in this set (36)
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden biases, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
the idea that knowledge comes from experience, and that observation and experimentation enable scientific knowledge.
an early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.
an early school of thought promoted by James and influenced by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function—how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
the process of looking inward in an attempt to directly observe one's own psychological processes.
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
a historically significant perspective that emphasized human growth potential.
the study of mental processes, such as occur when we perceive, learn, remember, think, communicate, and solve problems.
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
the science of behavior and mental processes.
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
the principle that inherited traits that better enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment will (in competition with other trait variations) most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
the scientific study of human flourishing, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural viewpoints.
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.
the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes. (Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists.)
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
human factors psychology
a field of psychology allied with I/O psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who are licensed to provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
German physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879. Introspection
Student of Wilhelm Wundt; founder of Structuralist school of psychology.
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment
student under William James who should have earned her Ph.D. from Harvard; Harvard denied her the degree she had earned, offering her a degree from Radcliffe College, which she refused the degree; she became a memory researcher and the American Psychological Association's (APA's) first female president in 1905
Margaret Floy Washburn
First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd female president of the APA (1921)
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