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Terms in this set (54)
our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment.
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
a periodic, natural loss of consciousness — as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
our biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
non-rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep.
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
bizarre experiences, such as jerking or a feeling of falling or floating weightlessly, while transitioning to sleep.
the large, slow brain waves associated with the deep sleep of stage NREM-3/4.
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
a pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythm. In response to light, the SCN causes the pineal gland to adjust melatonin production, thus modifying our feelings of sleepiness.
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep. very common sleep disorder.
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times. Very uncommon
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings. Very common sleep disorder.
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during NREM-3 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered. Most common in children
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind.
according to Freud, the symbolic, remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content).
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation.
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods.
substance use disorder
a disorder characterized by continued substance craving and use despite significant life disruption and/or physical risk.
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing an addictive drug or behavior.
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
alcohol use disorder
(popularly known as alcoholism) alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal, and a drive to continue problematic use.
drugs that depress central nervous system activity, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
a stimulating and highly addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco.
a powerful and addictive stimulant derived from the coca plant; produces temporarily increased alertness and euphoria.
drugs, such as methamphetamine, that stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide).
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
wish fulfillment theory
Theory that conflicts, events and desires of the past are represented in symbolic form in dreams.
a theory of dreaming; this theory proposes that the brain tries to make sense of random brain activity that occurs during sleep by synthesizing the activity with stored memories or putting it together in a story
state theory of hypnosis
Hypnosis meets some parts of the definition for an altered state of consciousness.
Role theory of hypnosis
states that hypnosis is not an alternate state of consciousness at all; some people are more easily hypnotized than others (hypnotic suggestibility)
believed hypnosis involves not only social influence but also a special state of dissociation. He viewed dissociation as a vivid form of everyday mind splits. He coined the divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis
divided consciousness theory
theory that during hypnosis our consciousness splits so that one aspect of consciousness is not aware of the role other parts are playing
the condition that results when the brain develops a chemical need for a drug and cannot function normally without it
Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)
a selective mechanism that protects the brain from some toxins and infections
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
dual track mind
conscious "high" track - we are aware of the information we are processing
unconscious "low" track - much of our information processing occurs automatically and unconsciously
a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
when people fail to detect changes to the visual details of a scene
cocktail party effect
ability to attend to only one voice among many
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