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55 terms

Music History Exam 3 Review

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Baroque
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
Age of Absolutism
Time period where kings and queens ruled domains with total control over their people.
Age of Science
Science took off, which in turn stimulated technology and philosophy. (Newton, Leibniz, Descartes, Locke, Hume)
Divine Right of Kings
the belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God
Basso Continuo
a bass line that provided an underlying structure for the harmonies and was usually played by the cello, or bassoon and harpsichord or organ.
Basso ostinato
a pattern in the bass that repeats while the melody above it changes
Ground Bass
bass is repeated over and over whilst composition plays above
Walking Bass
a bass line that uses continuous eighth-notes in a predominantly step-wise motion.
Figured Bass
a bass part written out in full and accompanied by numbers to indicate the chords to be played
Realization
The production of the chords outlined in the figured bass.
Recitative
a vocal passage of narrative text that a singer delivers with natural rhythms of speech...developed and popularized by Peri
Aria
operatic solo; a song sung by one person in an opera or oratorio. Scarlatti is known for the Da Capo version of this.
Prima Practica
books of madrigals by Monteverdi written in Renaissance style
Seconda Practica
also known as stile moderno, Monteverdi's new text-driven approach to music
Toccata
a baroque musical composition (usually for a keyboard instrument) with full chords and rapid elaborate runs in a rhythmically free style
Fugue
a composition written systematically in imitative polyphony, usually with a single main theme...the child of the Ricercare
Ornamentation
note or notes added to the original melodic line for embellishment and added interest
Agrements
a term used for the melodic ornaments in french music; generally indicated by signs or abbreviations
Appoggiatura
Leaning note; grace note; note of embellishment usually one step above (sometimes below) the main note.
Inegale
unequal
Intermedio
musical interlude on a pastoral, allegorical, or mythological subject performed before, between, or after the acts of a spoken comedy or tragedy
Greek Tragedy
Greek plays based on the suffering of a hero and usually ending in disaster, sometimes presented in a trilogy (set of 3)
Florentine Camerata
informal academy held at Bardi's palace in Florence where scholars discussed literature, science, and the arts, and musicians performed new music
Opera
a drama set to music
Ritornello
A short recurring passage that unifies and instrumental or vocal work., short recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
Strophic
describes a song where the stanzas are all sung to the same music
antiphonal
a type of music in which two or more groups of voices or instruments alternate with one another
cori spezzati
split choirs: to choirs talk to each-other, started in St. Marks
concertare
to put together
concertato style
combined voices and instruments
sonata da chiesa
church sonata, which refers to the original intended use of the pieces; fugal writing; some cases the rhythmic idioms of the dances and their binary forms were evident in the music
sonata da camera
Baroque Sonata, usually a suite of stylized dances, scored for one or more treble instruments and continuo.
trio sonata
two soloists accompanied by continuo
cantata
a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text
oratorio
a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text
stylized dance
dance music to listen to, takes on the characteristics of the dance
counterpoint
a musical form involving the simultaneous sound of two or more melodies
ricercare
an early to mid 16th century prelude in the style of improvisation; treats one or more subjects in imitation.
prelude
music that precedes a fugue or introduces an act in an opera
"Vingt-quatre violins du roi"
lead byJB Lully
french overture
type of overture used in tragedie en musique and other genres, that opens with a slow, homophonic, and majestic section, followed by a faster second section that begins with imitation
overdotting
Performing practice in French BAROQUE music in which a dotted NOTE is held longer than written, while the following short note is shortened.
clavcin
french for harpsichord
suite
A group of related pieces of music or movements played in sequence. In the baroque era, it was a succession of different kinds of dances. In more recent times, they have contained excerpts from longer works, such as ballets, or have simply portrayed a scene, as in Ferde Grofe's Grand Canyon Suite.
style brise
harpsichord style in which melody, bass, and harmony is sketched in by sounding the appropriate tones and relying on the listener's imagination to supply the continuity of the various lines
da capo aria
a terenary or A-B-A form that brings back the first section with embellishments improvised by the solist.
concerto
long musical composition for one or more principal instruments with orchestral accompaniment
concerto grosso
a baroque composition for orchestra and a group of solo instruments, standard three movement piece (slow-fast-slow) that is characterized by a concertino (small group of instruments) pitted against a ripieno (a larger group of instruments.)
choral motet
a motet based on a hymn tune
choral prelude
a short composition based on the hymn tune that reminded the congregation of the melody.
cadenza
Unaccompaniend section of virtuoso display for the soloist in a concerto, usually appearing near the end of the first movement and sometimes in the last movement
orders
a group of harpsichord solos
simple recitative
recitative accompanied only by a basso continuo or harpsichord, and not the full orchestra
accompanied recitative
Recitative that uses orchestral accompaniment to dramatize the text
obligato
a part of the score that must be performed without change or omission