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episodic memory

The memory of events, times, places, associated emotions and other conception-based knowledge in relation to a personal experience.

semantic memory

memories of general information-- eg. the names of presidents or what is celebrated on various holidays. *context/ques

implicit memory

it is the information you recall unconsciously in order to do things like tie your shoe, ride a bicycle, or drive a car. It is also known as non-declarative or procedural memory.

explicit memory

memory for specific information. includes episodic and semantic memory


info about the outside world that reaches our senses in the form of physical and chemical stimuli. when we encode it, we transform it into psychological formats which can be represented mentally


maintaining information over time


requires locating it and returning it to the conciousness

Acoustic encoding

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

Semantic encoding

the encoding of meaning, especially the meaning of words

visual encoding

the encoding of picture images

eidetic memory

The ability to recall things extremely ACCURATELY, especially when it comes to visual images, aka photographic memory. (images, sounds or objects)

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic image memory, LASTING NO MORE THAN A SECOND OR SO

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3-4 seconds. if we pay attention to them, we can sort them from background noises


self-awareness of the way your own memory functions

maintenance rehearsal

aka drill & practice- improves memory by repetition or using the information in conversation. (say name outloud, use name in asking them a question, use name as many times as possible in conversation, write down name after convo has ended, etc)

elaborative rehearsal

relating new information to what is already known (this julia reminds me of the other julia)


related to the past; recalling information that has been previously learned; includes episodic, semantic, and implicit memory


a stimulus that provides information about something or what to do (used in semantic memory)


remembering to do things in the future; tends to fail when we are distracted or stressed; tasks of this kind of memory include habitual tasks, event-based tasks, or time-based tasks. negative emotional states impair this type of memory


a measure of memory in which the person need only IDENTIFY items previously learned, like on a multiple choice test


a measure of memory in which the person must RETRIEVE info learned earlier, like a fill in the blank test

sensory memory

the type of memory that is first encountered by a stimulus; like a visual impression left by stimulus, held in visual sensory register

short-term memory

aka working memory; if one focuses on a stimulus in the sensory register, it will tend to be put in this type of memory; will tend to fade after 10-12 sec IF not rehearsed. new info can interfere and replace the old info. (eg remembering a phone # while dialing, but forgetting it after)

long-term memory

relatively permanent and limitless storehouse in memory system-- 3rd stage in memory; can be distorted by our biases and needs; rehearsal is needed to store in this type of memory. memory is related to how deeply we process the info

memory trace

visual impression left by the stimulus, held in visual sensory register

saccadic eye movement

series of eye fixations; movements which jump from one point to another about 4 times/sec.

serial position effect

the tendency to recall the first and last items in a series


discrete elements of information; to break up info into more general terms


when the first experience of something often creates a strong, almost unshakable impression.


the idea that things learned today are remembered better than things that were learned some time ago. The longer time passes, the less will be remembered.


a way of representing the world/personal interpretation of the world


info that is lost from short-term memory by adding new info.

flashbulb memory

tendency to remember events that are surprising, important, or emotionally stirring


freud- we are motivated to forget painful memories


ASK (maybe- giving one stimulus more importance than another, so you remember it better???)

tip of the tongue

the feeling of knowing an experience; words were unfamiliar so elaborative rehearsal didn't take place; reflects incomplete learning; we don't know specific answer but we know something

context dependent memory

clear in the context in which they were formed, sometimes unable to recall if you're not in the same context (eg deja vu, the feeling that we know someone or have been to a place before)

state dependent memory

extension of context-dependent. we retain info better if we are in the same emotional state as when we learned/stored the info.

retroactive interference

new info interfering with old info (which is being interfered with? old or new?)

proactive interference

old info interfering with new info (which is being interfered with? old or new?)

retrograde amnesia

memory lapses for the period before the accident; more common

anterograde amnesia

memory lapses for the period after the accident/trauma. linked to damage of the hippocampus

infantile amnesia

difficulty remembering info that happened before age 3 or so. little to do with the fact that they happened a really long time ago ~ don't really care/ immature hippocampus

method of loci

attaching information to a picture you can remember (improves memory)


NOT where the memories are stored (they are stored all over the brain); involved with formation of new memories;


brain structure anterior to the hippocampus that is involved in emotional processing and formation of long-term memories

dissociative amnesia

a disorder in which the distinctive feature is the patient's inability to remember important personal information to a degree that cannot be explained by normal forgetfulness (because of repression)

mnemonic devices

memory tricks

3 processes of memory

1. encoding; 2. storage; 3. retrieval

G factor

general intelligence-- broad reasoning and problem solving skills-- spearman

S factor

specific abilities

multiple intelligences

gardner-- intellience is comprised of different kidns of intelligences, each with a neurological base in a different area of the brain


sternberg-- triarchic theory; academic problem solving, puzzles, etc.


sternberg--triarchic theory; ability to do things that are new and useful; take chances, refuse limitations, appreciate art/music, challenge social norms, etc.


sternberg--triarchic theory; ability that individuals use to find the best fit between themselves and the demands of the environment.

IQ is found by...

(MA/CA)100 ---->mental age/chronological age100

verbal tasks

require knowledge of verbal concepts (wechsler)

performance tasks

require familiarity with spacial-relations and concepts

race & intelligence

african american children tend to obtain IQ scores 15 points lower than euro-americans-- many people think this has more to do with cultural attitudes and economic differences, not the race itself


IQ below 70; bottom 5%

mild retardation

most retarded children; mental age of 8-12 years; function by themselves

moderate retardation

can communicate and may live in a group home

severe retardation

3-4%; may master self-care skills and basic communication skills; many live in group homes; like 2-3 year olds

profound retardation

1-2%; need high level of structure and supervision

culture bias

middle age whites create standardized tests, middle class whites do better on the tests; certain testers seem to have advantages

culture free

culture-free tests have not been successful;

nature or nurture?

it's about 50 : 50


brain disorder that affects ability to communicate, reason, and interact with others. it is a spectrum disorder that affects individuals differently and to varying degrees. lifelong disability. unknown causes, typically appears by age 3.

autistic savant

individuals with autism that have extraordinary skills; 10% of autistic people have this; most commonly math calculations.

wisk vs waste

wisk= younger IQ test-- 16 and younger? waste= older IQ test


acetylcholine-- vital to memory formation (low levels=alzheimers disease)

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