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Memory and Intelligence

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episodic memory
The memory of events, times, places, associated emotions and other conception-based knowledge in relation to a personal experience.
semantic memory
memories of general information-- eg. the names of presidents or what is celebrated on various holidays. *context/ques
implicit memory
it is the information you recall unconsciously in order to do things like tie your shoe, ride a bicycle, or drive a car. It is also known as non-declarative or procedural memory.
explicit memory
memory for specific information. includes episodic and semantic memory
encoding
info about the outside world that reaches our senses in the form of physical and chemical stimuli. when we encode it, we transform it into psychological formats which can be represented mentally
storage
maintaining information over time
retrieval
requires locating it and returning it to the conciousness
Acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
Semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning, especially the meaning of words
visual encoding
the encoding of picture images
eidetic memory
The ability to recall things extremely ACCURATELY, especially when it comes to visual images, aka photographic memory. (images, sounds or objects)
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic image memory, LASTING NO MORE THAN A SECOND OR SO
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3-4 seconds. if we pay attention to them, we can sort them from background noises
metamemory
self-awareness of the way your own memory functions
maintenance rehearsal
aka drill & practice- improves memory by repetition or using the information in conversation. (say name outloud, use name in asking them a question, use name as many times as possible in conversation, write down name after convo has ended, etc)
elaborative rehearsal
relating new information to what is already known (this julia reminds me of the other julia)
retrospective
related to the past; recalling information that has been previously learned; includes episodic, semantic, and implicit memory
cue
a stimulus that provides information about something or what to do (used in semantic memory)
prospective
remembering to do things in the future; tends to fail when we are distracted or stressed; tasks of this kind of memory include habitual tasks, event-based tasks, or time-based tasks. negative emotional states impair this type of memory
recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only IDENTIFY items previously learned, like on a multiple choice test
recall
a measure of memory in which the person must RETRIEVE info learned earlier, like a fill in the blank test
sensory memory
the type of memory that is first encountered by a stimulus; like a visual impression left by stimulus, held in visual sensory register
short-term memory
aka working memory; if one focuses on a stimulus in the sensory register, it will tend to be put in this type of memory; will tend to fade after 10-12 sec IF not rehearsed. new info can interfere and replace the old info. (eg remembering a phone # while dialing, but forgetting it after)
long-term memory
relatively permanent and limitless storehouse in memory system-- 3rd stage in memory; can be distorted by our biases and needs; rehearsal is needed to store in this type of memory. memory is related to how deeply we process the info
memory trace
visual impression left by the stimulus, held in visual sensory register
saccadic eye movement
series of eye fixations; movements which jump from one point to another about 4 times/sec.
serial position effect
the tendency to recall the first and last items in a series
chunking
discrete elements of information; to break up info into more general terms
primacy
when the first experience of something often creates a strong, almost unshakable impression.
recency
the idea that things learned today are remembered better than things that were learned some time ago. The longer time passes, the less will be remembered.
schema
a way of representing the world/personal interpretation of the world
displacement
info that is lost from short-term memory by adding new info.
flashbulb memory
tendency to remember events that are surprising, important, or emotionally stirring
repression
freud- we are motivated to forget painful memories
hierarchy
ASK (maybe- giving one stimulus more importance than another, so you remember it better???)
tip of the tongue
the feeling of knowing an experience; words were unfamiliar so elaborative rehearsal didn't take place; reflects incomplete learning; we don't know specific answer but we know something
context dependent memory
clear in the context in which they were formed, sometimes unable to recall if you're not in the same context (eg deja vu, the feeling that we know someone or have been to a place before)
state dependent memory
extension of context-dependent. we retain info better if we are in the same emotional state as when we learned/stored the info.
retroactive interference
new info interfering with old info (which is being interfered with? old or new?)
proactive interference
old info interfering with new info (which is being interfered with? old or new?)
retrograde amnesia
memory lapses for the period before the accident; more common
anterograde amnesia
memory lapses for the period after the accident/trauma. linked to damage of the hippocampus
infantile amnesia
difficulty remembering info that happened before age 3 or so. little to do with the fact that they happened a really long time ago ~ don't really care/ immature hippocampus
method of loci
attaching information to a picture you can remember (improves memory)
hippocampus
NOT where the memories are stored (they are stored all over the brain); involved with formation of new memories;
amygdala
brain structure anterior to the hippocampus that is involved in emotional processing and formation of long-term memories
dissociative amnesia
a disorder in which the distinctive feature is the patient's inability to remember important personal information to a degree that cannot be explained by normal forgetfulness (because of repression)
mnemonic devices
memory tricks
3 processes of memory
1. encoding; 2. storage; 3. retrieval
G factor
general intelligence-- broad reasoning and problem solving skills-- spearman
S factor
specific abilities
multiple intelligences
gardner-- intellience is comprised of different kidns of intelligences, each with a neurological base in a different area of the brain
analytical
sternberg-- triarchic theory; academic problem solving, puzzles, etc.
creative
sternberg--triarchic theory; ability to do things that are new and useful; take chances, refuse limitations, appreciate art/music, challenge social norms, etc.
practical
sternberg--triarchic theory; ability that individuals use to find the best fit between themselves and the demands of the environment.
IQ is found by...
(MA/CA)100 ---->mental age/chronological age100
verbal tasks
require knowledge of verbal concepts (wechsler)
performance tasks
require familiarity with spacial-relations and concepts
race & intelligence
african american children tend to obtain IQ scores 15 points lower than euro-americans-- many people think this has more to do with cultural attitudes and economic differences, not the race itself
retardation
IQ below 70; bottom 5%
mild retardation
most retarded children; mental age of 8-12 years; function by themselves
moderate retardation
can communicate and may live in a group home
severe retardation
3-4%; may master self-care skills and basic communication skills; many live in group homes; like 2-3 year olds
profound retardation
1-2%; need high level of structure and supervision
culture bias
middle age whites create standardized tests, middle class whites do better on the tests; certain testers seem to have advantages
culture free
culture-free tests have not been successful;
nature or nurture?
it's about 50 : 50
autism
brain disorder that affects ability to communicate, reason, and interact with others. it is a spectrum disorder that affects individuals differently and to varying degrees. lifelong disability. unknown causes, typically appears by age 3.
autistic savant
individuals with autism that have extraordinary skills; 10% of autistic people have this; most commonly math calculations.
wisk vs waste
wisk= younger IQ test-- 16 and younger? waste= older IQ test
ACh
acetylcholine-- vital to memory formation (low levels=alzheimers disease)