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90 terms

A&P Ch 8 SG Joints

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Periosteum
a)
Articular cartilage
c)
Joint (synovial) cavity
b)
Synovial membrane
e)
Joint 1


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial
d) Multiaxial
Joint 2


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial
b) Uniaxial
Joint 3


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial
b) Uniaxial
Joint 4


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial
a) Nonaxial
Joint 5


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial
c) Biaxial
Joint 6


a) Nonaxial

b) Uniaxial

c) Biaxial

d) Multiaxial
c) Biaxial
Joint 1
ball and socket
Joint 2
pivot joint
Joint 3
hinge joint
Joint 4
plane joint
Joint 5
saddle joint
Joint 6
condyloid joint
The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification of joints.


True / False
True
All joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight.


True / False
False
Hinge joints permit movement in only two planes.


True / False
False
Synovial fluid is a viscous material that is derived by filtration from blood.


True / False
True
The articular surfaces of synovial joints play a minimal role in joint stability.


True / False
True
The major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict undesirable movement.


True / False
True
The only movement allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae is flexion.


True / False
False
Movement at the hip joint does not have as wide a range of motion as at the shoulder joint.


True / False
True
A person who has been diagnosed with a sprained ankle has a injury to the ligaments that attach to that joint.


True / False
True
A movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to anterior is supination.


True / False
True
The wrist joint can exhibit adduction and eversion movements.


True / False
False
Cruciate ligaments are important ligaments that stabilize all ball-and-socket joints.


True / False
False
Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called dorsiflexion.


True / False
True
The gripping of the trochlea by the trochlear notch constitutes the "hinge" for the elbow joint.


True / False
True
The ligamentum teres represents a very important stabilizing ligament for the hip joint.


True / False
False
The structural classification of joints is based on the composition of the binding material and the presence or absence of a joint cavity.


True / False
True
Synovial fluid contains phagocytic cells that protect the cavity from invasion by microbes or other deris.


True / False
True
A person who has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis would be suffering loss of the synovial fluids.


True / False
False
A ball-and-socket joint is a multiaxial joint.


True / False
Truef
Bending of the tip of the finger exhibits flexion.


True / False
True
Dislocations in the TMJ almost always dislocate posteriorly with the mandibular condyles ending up in the infratemporal fossa.


True / False
False
Symphyses are synarthrotic joints desighned for strength with flexibility.


True / False
False
A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ___ joint.


a) syndesmosis

b) suture

c) synchondrosis

d) gomphosis
d) gomphosis
The cruciate ligaments of the knee ___.


a) tend to run parallel to one another

b) are also called collateral ligaments

c) prevent hyperextension of the knee

d) assist in defining the range of motion of the leg
c) prevent hyperextension of the knee
Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ___.


a) attach tendons

b) produce red blood cells (hemopoiesis)

c) provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints

d) form the synovial membrane
c) provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ___.


a) suture

b) syndesmosis

c) symphysis

d) gomphosis
c) symphysis
On the basis of structural classificcation, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?


a) symphysis

b) synchondrosis

c) pivot

d) syndesmosis
d) syndesmosis
Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called ___.


a) menisci

b) bursae

c) ligaments

d) tendons
b) bursae
Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ___.


a) amphiarthroses

b) synarthroses

c) diarthroses

d) synovial joints
a) amphiarthroses
___ are cartilaginous joints.


a) Syndesmoses

b) Sutures

c) Synchondroses

d) Gomphoses
c) Synchondroses
The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ___ joint.


a) hinge

b) plane

c) pivot

d) condyloid
b) plane
The ligments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly and called ___.


a) cruciate ligaments

b) patellar ligaments

c) anterior ligaments

d) tibial collateral ligaments
a) cruciate ligaments
Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ___.


a) flexion

b) extension

c) hyperextension

d) circumduction
c) hyperextension
In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?


a) Immovable joints are called amphiarthroses.

b) All synovial joints are freely movable.

c) Synarthrotic joints are slightly movable.

d) In cartilaginous joints, a joint cavity is present.
b) All synovial joints are freely movable.
Synarthrotic joints ___.


a) are found at the junction of the epiphysis and disaphysis of growing bone

b) are cartilaginous joints

c) permit essentially no movement

d) have large joint cavities
c) permit essentially no movement
Fibrrous joints are clasified as ___.


a) pivot, hinge and ball and socket

b) sumphysis, sacroiliac, and articular

c) hinge, saddle, and ellipsoidal

d) sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
d) sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ___.


a) hyaline cartilage

b) synovial membranes

c) fibrocartilage

d) tendon sheaths
a) hyaline cartilage
Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following statements is true about this fluid?


a) It contains enzymes only.

b) It contains lactic acid.

c) It contains hyaluronic acid.

d) It contains hydrochloric acid.
c) It contains hyaluronic acid.
Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?


a) amphiarthrotic joints designed for strenth and flexibility

b) interphalangeal joints

c) Joints that permit angular movements

d) cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones
d) cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones
What are menisci?


a) cavities lined with cartilage

b) small sacs containing synovial fluid

c) semilunar cartilage pads

d) tendon sheaths
c) semilunar cartilage pads
Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements?


a) Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.

b) Gliding movements allow flexibility of the upper limbs.

c) Gliding movemnts are multiaxail.

d) An example of a gliding movement is nodding one's head.
a) Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane called?


a) abduction

b) adduction

c) inversion

d) dorsiflexion
a) abduction
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ___.


a) hands

b) feet

c) arms

d) hands and the feet
b) feet
The hip joint is a good example of a(an) ___ synovial joints.


a) nonaxial

b) uniaxial

c) biaxial

d) multiaxial
d) multiaxial
Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as ___.


a) biaxial movement

b) flexion

c) uniaxial rotation

d) extension
c) uniaxial rotation
Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ___.


a) common due to the weight bearing the hip endures

b) rare because of the ligament reinforcement

c) common in all people who are overweight

d) rare because the rotator cuff stabilizes the hip joint
b) rare because of the ligament reinforcement
Which ligament holds the radius to the ulna at the proximal end?


a) anular

b) ulnar collateral

c) radial collateral

d) iliofemoral
a) anular
Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?

a) the patellar ligament

b) the medial patellar retinacula

c) the lateral patellar reinacula

d) the extracapsular ligament
a) the patellar ligament
Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is (are) damaged as a result?


a) oblique popliteal and extracapsular ligament

b) suprapatellar

c) arcuate popliteal and the posterior cruciate

d) medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate
d) medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate
Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of arthritis?


a) bursitis

b) tendonitis

c) osteoarthritis

d) rheumathoid arthritis
c) osteoarthritis
What can cause gouty arthritis?


a) excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints

b) a disorder in the body's immune system resulting in destruction of joints

c) a thickening of the synovial membrane and a decrease in fluid production

d) a bacterial infection in the bursae
a) excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints
Pointing the toes is an example of ___.


a) circumduction

b) plantar flexion

c) pronation

d) protraction
b) plantar flexion
Which of the following is a true statement?


a) The head of the humerus articulates withthe acromion process.

b) the greater tubercle of the humerus articulates at the coracoid process of the scapula.

c) The rotator cuff is responsible for the flexible extensions at the elbow joint.

d) The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.
d) The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.
Multiaxial joints of the body include ___.


a) the knee and the elbow

b) the ankle and wrist

c) the hip and shoulder

d) intercarpal and intertarsal joints
c) the hip and shoulder
Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are characteristics of what type of joint?


a) suture

b) synchondrosis

c) symphysis

d) hinge joint
d) hinge joint
Extracapsular ligaments stablilizing the knee include ___.


a) the patellar ligament extending from femur to patella

b) lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

c) curciate ligaments, which help secure the articulating bones together

d) the oblique popliteal crossing the knee anteriorly
b) lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements
Which of the following is a correct statement about development of joints?

a) Joint develop in parallel with bones.

b) By the end of the fourth week, fetal synovial joints resemble adult joints.

c) all fibrous joints are in the adult form by the time of birth.

d) Joints develop independent of bone grwoth.
a) Joint develop in parallel with bones.
An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ___.


a) the clavicle and the scapula at the distal ends

b) the radius and ulna along its length

c) between the vertebrae

d) between the humerus and the glenoid cavity
b) the radius and ulna along its length
Which of the following statements best describes angular movements?


a) They allow movement only in one plane.

b) They allow movement in several planes.

c) They occur only between bones with flat articular processes.

d) They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.
d) They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.
Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the two bones of the hand that articulate to form a saddle joint.


a) The scaphoid of the index finger and the triquetrum of the middle finer.

b) The trapezium of the ring finger and the capitate of the fourth finger.

c) The scaphoid of the middle finger and lunate of the index finger.

d) The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.
d) The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.
Tendon sheaths ___.


a) act as friction-reducing structures

b) are lined with dense irregular connective tissue

c) form channels for tendons

d) help anchor the tendon to the muscle
a) act as friction-reducing structures
Which of the follwoing is "not" a part of the synovial joint?


a) joint cavity

b) tendon sheath

c) articular cartilage

d) articular capsule
b) tendon sheath
Which of the following is "not" a factor that contributes to keeping the articular sufaces of diarthroses contact?


a) structure and shape of the articulating bone

b) arrangement and tension of the muscles

c) strength and tension of joint ligaments

d) number of bones in the joint
d) number of bones in the joint
Turing the foot medially at the ankle would be called.
inversion
Moving your jaw forward, causing an underbite, is called ___.
protraction
A ___ is a fluid-filled sac a tendon slides over.
bursa
The joint between the frontal and parietal bones is called a ___ joint.
suture
Why are epiphyseal plates considered temporary joints?
Once long bone growth in length is complete, the cartilage of the epiphyseal plates ossifies to become a permanent synostosis.
Using the functional classification, a freely movable joint would be called a ___ joint.
diarthrosis
The kp joint, like the shoulder joint, is a ___ joint.
ball-and-socket
Partial dislocation of a joint is called a ___.
subluxation
The type of joint between the carpal and the first metacarpal is a ___ joint.
saddle
Shynovial joints have five major features. What are they?
articular cartilage, a joint cavity, an articular capsule, synovial fluid, and reinforcing ligments
Often people who exercise prudently seem to have fewer bouts with osteoarthritis. Will exercise prevent arthritis? If so, how?
Exercise does not prevent arthritis, but it strengthens muscles that in turn support and stabilize joints.