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Final Exam Biology
Terms in this set (50)
La Nina and El Nino events affect climate around the globe. Having just entered an El Nino, the Southern U.S. might expect
A warmer, drier winter than average
used to extract oil and natural gas trapped in rock formations; uses a relatively new technology to drill both vertically and horizontally, uses explosives and fluids to put pressure on rock and fracture it to release trapped oil and gas, and can release natural gas (methane) to the atmosphere where it can contribute to the greenhouse effect.
Ecosystems services are extremely varied. inspiration for artistic creations would be what type of ecosystem service?
The Paris Climate Agreement aims to keep global warming below 2.0 degrees C by 2050 because
Climate scientists predict that this would allow the earth to avoid most of the negative impacts of global warming
An education major seeking to be a teacher will spend a career developing _______ and a religion major may spend a career supporting _____ both of which are integral to economic development.
Human Capital; Social Capital
Ecosystem services are
Benefits, seldom accounted for in our economic systems, and supplied to human societies by natural ecosystems.
Habitat fragmentation occurs when some habitat, such as a large forest, is broken into many smaller pieces of habitat embedded in a "matrix" of non-habitat. This fragmentation can cause
increased probability for the subpopulation of a species living in each habitat fragment to go extinct
The Earth's wind patterns and ocean currents redistribute ______ around the globe and help create climate patterns
Methane hydrate is
Methane gas that is trapped in ice in cold ocean water, a source of possible negative feedback to climate warming if global temperature rises enough to release it
What is a global tipping point?
A point at which the Earth system is pushed from a stable state into a new stable state, where it tends to remain
Biodiversity refers to all life on Earth and can be studied or characterized at what organizational level(s)?
Genetics, species, ecosystem
Of the three most commonly used fossil fuels, which is the least damaging as a source of greenhouse gases and may also serve as an important energy source while humans develop renewable energy sources?
What is the largest anthropogenic source of methane entering the atmosphere?
Fossil fuel production
Methylmercury is an environmental health problem for humans and animals in South Florida. The primary source of this mercury is
Coal fired power plans in more northern states
Probably every student in this class this morning is majoring in an academic area that studies some type of "capital", whether they have called it by that term or not. Which type of capital encompasses the development or production of all other types of capital?
"One health" is an important concept because it emphasizes that
There are extensive and strong links among human health, animal health, and environmental health
Keystone species are particularly important to conserve a keystone species is one that
Has an extensive impact on the structure and function of communities and ecosystems
Natural and man-made marshes in South Florida are used to
Absorb phosphorus (and other nutrients) that causes pollution problems in
Why is the current ongoing loss of Earth's species considered a biodiversity crisis?
The unprecedented high rate at which species are going extinct
Ongoing extinction of come snails is an excellent example of "opportunity cost" because
The group of species is known to contain many biologically active chemicals that scientists have no yet explored for useful properties
El nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a natural and regular oscillation (or charge) in weather that is created by
Weakening of trade winds allowing warm ocean water to flow eastward across the equatorial Pacific Ocean
Extensive defoliation of a forested watershed by the gypsy moth can increase nitrogen loss from the watershed. Which of the following processes is NOT involved?
Defoliation increases water uptake from the soil by trees
We have talked about riparian forests several times during this semester and we recently reviewed them as providers of ecosystem services. These services include
Controlling sediment runoff form agricultural fields, acting as nitrogen sinks, sequestering carbon from the atmosphere
The ultimate source of energy that drives production of that drives production of the ecosystem services used by humans is
One way that nutrient pollution is harming biodiversity and decreasing ecosystem services is by
Extensive eutrophication of coastal oceans and coastal oceans and creation of "dead zones" in the ocean
Over geological time major biomes and ecosystems around the world migrate in space because of changes in climate. What generally happened to the biomes of the Eastern United States during the last glaciation?
They migrated South
Hadley Cells are
Rising and falling cells of air around the Earth created by the tradewinds
Why do some northern coastal areas have warmer climates than would be expected from their high latitude?
Heat carried by the "ocean conveyer belt"
Humans experience climate on a day-to-day basis and weather over long time periods
The northern and southern latitudes of Earth experience seasons as the earth revolves around the sun because
The Earth is tilted on its axis
The Brown Tree snake is an invasive species on the island of Guam. Why is this species highly problematic?
The snake is a new top predatory and by eating birds it completely alters trophic cascades
What countries are top two greenhouse gas emitters?
China and United States
Humans contribute to nitrous oxide entering the atmosphere and thus to global warming by
Why does the U.S. military consider climate change a "threat multiplier"?
Changing climates and associated extreme weather events undermine agricultural production and water availability, thus contributing to civil conflicts in places where there are American economic or political interests
When did greenhouse conditions first begin to develop on Earth?
When Earth's atmosphere began to form
A radiative forcing function is the effect of any factor that alters the balance of incoming and outgoing energy in the Earth-atmosphere system?
Tundra provides an ecosystem service by being a carbon sink. If climate warms and tundra soils warm and permafrost melts, then ____ is a major greenhouse gas that would be emitted to the atmosphere.
Ocean acidification, or lowering the pH of the ocean, is having catastrophic consequences for marine biodiversity, especially for coral reefs. It is caused by
Diffusion of atmospheric carbon dioxide into the oceans
Globally, what are the two largest sinks for half of the carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere by humans?
La nina and El niño events affect climate around the globe. Having just entered and El Nino, the southern U.S. might expect
A warmer, drier winter than average
Species interactions within ecological communities and ecosystems can provide many benefits to humans. Fo example, what is the community ecology mechanism by which rodent communities can decrease human risk for Sin hombre virus
Competition among rodent species reduces population size of the "carrier" rodent species
In a "cap and trade" program for carbon management, a government or managing agency would use scientific information to determine a total amount of C production that is safe, then allocate "allowances" (usually in tons of carbon) to the producers of carbon dioxide, and then prohibit trading of allowances among the producers to ensure fair rules for production of carbon dioxide
Which of the following is NOT a major cause of biodiversity loss?
Sea level rise
Life cycle analysis is
Understanding the development of an organisms across all life stages, account for carbon emissions in all phases of a producers development, manufacture, use, and disposal; adding up all of the carbon emissions produced by a person during his.her lifetime (all of the above)
The most important greenhouse gases include
Carbon dioxide, methan, nitrous oxide
Many conservations define "hot spots" as places where
There is a large number of endemic species and natural habitat loss is very high
The agency that does all climate model research and promotes a strong agenda to stop human releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere is the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Climate scientists modeling potential climate warming use many representative concentration pathways because politicians and citizens need to understand the effects of extreme scenarios as well as the relative effects of different effort levels to mitigate climate change in order to make rational and effective management choices.
In what way(s) is supply and demand of ecosystem services likely different form supply and demand for coal?
The supply curve for ecosystem services is likely vertical because the amount of available services are not responsive to demand and price
Decreased winter snow pack in the Western US.S mountains, caused by our warming climate, results in
Two of the above. (Greater reliance on ground water aquifers for human activities and livelihood in the southwest and lack of summer water availability for agricultural irrigation in central California)
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