Mr. Durham APES Chapter 8
Terms in this set (71)
Formation of Earth and solar system
Earth formed along with the rest of the plants in the solar system through collisions of particles in the collapsing nebula.
Dense mass largely made up of nickel and some iron. The inner core is a solid and the outer core is liquid
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
A molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle
The soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats.
The brittle outermost layer of earth made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
Earth's outermost layer.
in order starting from the surface: crust, mantle, and core (outer and inner)
areas of volcanic activities that result from plumes of hot solid material that have risen from deep inside earths mantle
Evidence from drifting continents
Animals of the same species were found on two different continents
Theory of plate tectonic
The theory that pieces of Earth's outer layer are in constant motion
the cycle of processes that build up and break down the lithosphere.
Sections of the Earth's crust that move due to convection currents.
The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.
Convection and plate movement
-magma in mantle behaves like fluid-> hot magma rises, cold magma sink
The geologic time scale
The calendar of Earth's history is sometimes called:
A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface
Plate movement over a hotspot
Causing the magma underneath the earths surface to bulge and making its way to the surface.
Divergent plate boundaries
Boundary between tectonic plates in which the two plates move away from each other, and new crust is created between them
The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges
Convergent plate boundaries
A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.
Collision of two continental plates
what cuases mountains in the middle of ocntinent
Transform fault boundary
A lithospheric plate boundary where two plates slide against each other
(geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other
a region of numerous, closely spaced faults
sudden movements of Earth's crust followed by a series of shocks
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
Point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus
A fault zone
What was discovered in the Mississippi River region in the late 1970s?
Locations of earthquakes and volcanoes
Along faults, tectonic plate boundaries, or mid-oceanic ridges
a rating system used to measure the magnitude (strength) of earthquakes.
a repeated series of events by which rock gradually and continually changes between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic forms
A solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence.
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
Intrusive igneous rock
rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface
Extrusive igneous rock
rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface
Cracks that occur when rock cools.
Formed when particles of broken rock and organic materials are pressed and cemented together to form new rocks. Sediments are mud, sand, pebbles, shells, bones, leaves, and stems. Some rocks of this type can be sandstone, limestone, and gypsum.
contain minerals from igneous or sedimentary rocks, can be foliated, and can be porphyritic
Any process that breaks rock down into smaller pieces without changing the chemistry of the rock; typically wind and water.
The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
Acid precipitation that's acid rain
Sulfur dioxide mixed with water vapor in atmosphere. Responsible for degradation of old statues, gravestones, etc...
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
Gas to solid
A mixture of mineral particles and organic material that covers the land, and in which terrestrial plants grow.
Ecosystem services of soil
Medium for plant growth. Primary filter of water from atmosphere into rivers. Provides habitat for many organisms
Result of weathering of rocks and gradual accumulation of detritus from biosphere (organic matter from organisms)
the material from which soil forms
Layers of soil
the uppermost horizon of soil. It is primarily made up of organic material, including waste from organisms, the bodies of decomposing organisms, and live organisms.
a soil horizon; the layer below the O layer is called the A layer. The A layer is formed of weathered rock, with some organic material; often referred to as topsoil.
Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the crumbly, topmost layer of soil.
a soil layer from which minerals are leached as water percolates through the soil
a soil horizon, horizon C is made up of larger pieces of rock that have not undergone much weathering.
Determined by percentages of sand, silt, and clay
amount of open space between each soil particle
The ability of certain soil particles to transfer mineral ions between their surfaces and the soil solution is referred to as
the proportion of soil bases to soil acids, expressed as a percentage
Damage to soil - for example, as a result of deforestation or the removal of topsoil from bare land by water and wind erosion.
Elemental composition of the earths crust
Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O)
minerals mined because they contain useful substances
Elements that are good conductors of electric current and heat.
The known quantity of the resource that can be economically recovered
Surface and subsurface mining
Surface: close to earths surface
Subsurface: more than 100 m below earths surface, through a tunnel
involves the removal of the Earth's surface all the way down to the level of the mineral seam.
waste materials produced from mining
Open pit mining
Removing minerals such as gravel, sand, and metal ores by digging them out of the earth's surface and leaving an open pit.
Mountaintop removal mining
Destructive form of surface mining that blasts away th
method of extracting mineral ore by hand using simple tools like picks, shovels, and pans
Extraction of a metal ore or fuel resource such as coal from a deep underground deposit.
a soil horizon; B receives the minerals and organic materials that are leached out of the A horizon.
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