IB Biology 7.2 & 7.3 Transcription and Translation
Terms in this set (29)
5' to 3' direction
the only direction that DNA polymerase can synthesize DNA; it does so by adding nucleotides to the 3' end of a DNA strand.
the modification of a strand of DNA after it is replicated, in which a methyl (CH3) group is added and is one of the methods used to regulate the expression of genes.
sequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis that is transcribed to messenger RNA.
conversion of the information from the gene into mRNA via transcription and then to protein via translation resulting in the phenotypic manifestation of the gene.
total genetic contents of an organism.
segment of a gene situated between exons that is removed before the translation of messenger RNA and does not function in coding for protein synthesis.
components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences. Some non-coding DNA is transcribed into functional non-coding RNA molecules while others are not transcribed.
structural unit of a eukaryotic chromosome, consisting of a length of DNA coiled around a core of histones.
site in a DNA molecule at which RNA polymerase and transcription factors bind to initiate transcription of mRNA.
substance that binds to the operator and obstructs the RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter and transcribing the gene.
Splicing of mRNA
removal of introns from a primary transcript and the subsequent joining of exons in the production of a mature RNA molecule.
sequence of nucleotides that signals the end of transcription or translation and the completion of the synthesis of a nucleic acid or protein molecule.
process by which messenger RNA is synthesized from a DNA template resulting in the transfer of genetic information from the DNA molecule to the messenger RNA.
a coiled conformation common in many proteins; it is characterized by a spiral chain of amino acids stabilized by hydrogen bonds in which the resulting structure resembles a spring or helix.
Beta pleated sheet
a structure that occurs in many proteins and consists of two or more parallel adjacent polypeptide chains arranged in a zigzag pattern, so that hydrogen bonds can form between the chains.
ribosomes that are attached to the outer surfaces of endoplasmic reticulum and produce proteins that are used within the plasma membrane or are expelled from the cell via exocytosis.
can move about anywhere in the cytoplasm and the proteins they make are free to go anywhere within the cell.
Non-polar amino acid
an alpha-amino acid in which the functional group (R-) attached to the alpha-carbon has hydrophobic properties.
Polar amino acid
an alpha-amino acid in which the functional group (R-) attached to the alpha-carbon has hydrophilic properties.
a polymer of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.
a group of ribosomes joined by a molecule of messenger RNA containing the genetic information code that is to be translated during protein synthesis.
the linear sequence or order of amino acids of a protein; it determines how the protein will fold into a more advanced structure, such as the unique three-dimensional structure of protein.
the chemical group attached to the alpha carbon in an amino acid that is different for each of the common 20 amino acids found in proteins.
the repetitive folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to the hydrogen bonds formed between the peptides. (alpha or beta forms)
the irregular folding of a protein molecule due to the interactions of the R- groups involving hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, or disulfide bonds.
the transfer of information from a RNA molecule into a polypeptide, involving the changing of language from nucleic acid to amino acid.
RNA molecules that transport amino acids to ribosomes for incorporation into a polypeptide undergoing synthesis (according to directions coded in the mRNA).
Stage name for first step in translation
Enzyme used during initiation of translation