IB Biology - Reproduction (11.4 & 6.6)
Terms in this set (78)
Production of sperm cells
Production of egg cells
Fertilization by more than one sperm
Stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells with an inner cell mass
human chorionic gonadotropin
Structure that allows an embryo to be nourished with the mother's blood supply
Stimulates uterine contractions
Reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum
An immature ovum enclosed by a single layer of cells
Diploid cell, in prophase I of meiosis, that can be hormonally triggered to develop into an ovum
A haploid cell resulting from meiosis I in oogenesis, which will become an ovum after meiosis II
Contains a secondary oocyte prior to ovulation
Narrow, coiled tubules that produce sperm in the testes.
Leydig cells (interstitial cells)
The diploid germ cell from which sperm are produced in the testes
Cells in seminiferous tubules that provide metabolic support for the spermatids
Period from fertilization of the ovum to birth
Control system in which the effect of a hormone causes more of the hormone to be released
Young are born helpless
Diploid cells that undergo meiosis I to form haploid secondary spermatocytes
Haploid cells that undergo the second division of meiosis to produce spermatids
Formed from two secondary spermatocytes that undergo meiosis II to produce 4 of them
Mature sperm cells
Thick, transparent coating rich in glycoproteins that surrounds an oocyte
Small cell containing little cytoplasm that is produced along with the oocyte and later discarded
Layer of granulosa cells that surround an oocyte after is has been ovulated
Vesicle at the tip of a sperm cell that helps the sperm penetrate the egg using enzymes
Regulatory secretory organelles found within oocytes and are most associated with polyspermy prevention after fertilization
Filled with mitochondria, to generate ATP for flagella
Mature egg cell
Attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall
Thin, fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and protects the developing embryo
Protective barrier between the baby's blood and the mother's blood
Villi that sprout from the chorion to provide maximum contact/surface area with maternal blood
Young are born relatively mature and mobile
male reproductive organ that produces sperm and hormones
Keeps Testes warm (35 degrees)/ cold by expanding and coiling up
A long, coiled duct on the outside of the testis in which sperm are stored, mature and gain the ability to swim
sperm duct (vas deferens)
transfer sperm from epididymis to urethra
Two small glands that secrete a fluid rich in sugar that nourishes and helps sperm move
The location that secretes an alkaline fluid to help protect the sperm.
Duct through which semen is discharged out of the male body.
Male reproductive organ
prenatal development of male genitalia and both sperm production and development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty
secondary sexual characteristic of males.
bodily structures that change with sexual maturity but are not directly related to reproduction (breast, hips, pubic and underarm hair) which are triggered by testosterone at puberty
the female gonad that produces ovum or eggs and secretes estrogen and progesterone
Fallopian tube; tube that carries eggs from an ovary to the uterus
A hollow muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of the female, in which the embryo is nourished and develops before birth
The opening of the uterus
The birth canal; the stretchy, muscular passageway through which a baby exits the uterus during childbirth.
A hormone produced by the ovaries that controls the development of eggs and adult female characteristics
A steroid hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Maintains and enhances the uterine lining for the possible implantation of a fertilized ovum.
primary sexual characteristics
prenatal development of reproductive organs
regular sequence of events in which an egg is produced then released from the body
follicular phases of the menstrual cycle
Day 1-14 of menstrual cycle when the immature follicle develops
luteal phases of the menstrual cycle
Day 14-28 of the menstrual cycle when the corpus lutem is formed and maintains the endometrial lining of the uterus
A tropic hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that targets the gonads. In females, it stimulates the ovaries to develop follicles (oogenesis) and secrete estrogen; in males, it stimulates spermatogenesis.
Results in ovulation and egg release; release of testosterone in males.
anterior pituitary gland
Produces FSH(follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH(luteinizing hormone)
developing sac enclosing each ovum within the ovary
The ovarian germ cell that is able to undergo both mitosis and meiosis:
a cell that divides to form the polar body and the secondary oocyte
A haploid cell resulting from meiosis I in oogenesis, which will become an ovum after meiosis II.
The production of haploid germ cells by the ovary
male gamete formation
A diploid cell that starts of spermatogenesis; Reproduces through mitosis
a diploid cell that undergoes the first meiotic division and yields two haploid secondary spermatocytes
haploid cells that complete meiosis II to produce 4 haploid spermatids
cells that form a wall of seminiferous tubules to nourish and protect maturing sperm cells
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood and investigated sexual reproduction in deer.
In vitro fertilization
Infertility treatment where an embryo is created by combining egg and sperm in a petri dish
Cell division that produces haploid reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
one of hundreds of tiny tubules in the testes in which sperm are produced
final product of spermatogenesis; following a period of maturation, becomes a spermatozoan
a remnant of follicle after ovulation that secretes the hormone progesterone