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Chapter 20: Electricity
Terms in this set (54)
A property that causes protons and electrons to attract or repeal each other
The behavior of electric charges, including how charge is transferred between objects
Law of conservation of charge
the total charge in an isolated system is constant.
A transfer of charges without contact between materials
the continuous flow of electric charge
Direct Current (DC)
Charge that flows only in one direction
Alternating Current (AC)
a flow of electric current that continuously reverses its direction
something that opposes the flow of electric charges in that material
A material through which electrical current can flow easily
a material through which electrical current cannot flow
the difference in electrical potential energy of a charge between 2 places in an electric field
a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy
A complete path through which charges can flow
a circuit in which charges have only one path to follow
A circuit that has no resistors in place
a circuit with 2 or more paths through which charges can flow
a switch that opens when current in a circuit is too high
a smoothly varying signal produced by continuously changing the voltage or current in a circuit
encoded information as a string of 1's and 0's (binary)
a crystalline solid that conducts current only under certain conditions (most are made of silicon)
a solid state component with 3 layers of semiconductors that creates a "switch"
What produces a net electric charge?
an excess or shortage of electrons
What determines whether an electric force is attractive or repulsive?
like charges repel and opposite charges attract
What determines the strength of an electric field?
the net charge and distance from the charge
What are three ways in which charge is transferred?
friction, contact, and induction
How does a static discharge occur
when electric charge is transferred suddenly
the force of attraction or repulsion between electrically charged objects
the effect an electric charge has on other charges in the space around it
what are two types of current?
direct and alternating
what are some examples of conductors and insulators?
conductors: copper, silver
insulators: wood, plastic, rubber, air
what factors effect electrical resistance?
thickness, length, and temperature
what causes an electric current?
in order for change to flow in a conducting wire, the wire must be connected in a complete loop that includes a source if electrical energy
how are voltage, current, and resistance related
increasing the voltage increases the current. keeping the same voltage and increasing the resistance decreases the current
a material that has almost zero resistance when it is cooled to low temperatures
the difference in electrical potential energy between two places in an electric field
What is included in a circuit diagram?
a source of electrical energy and devices run by the electrical energy
how do series and parallel circuits differ?
if one element stops functioning in a series circuit, none of the elements can operate, but in a parallel circuit, the rest of the elements can still operate
how do you calculate electric power and electrical energy use?
electric power is voltage multiplied by current and electrical energy is power multiplied by time
what devices make electricity safe to use?
correct wiring, fuses, circuit breakers, insulation, and grounded plugs
prevents current overload in a circuit (melts)
the transfer of excess charge through a conductor to Earth
how do electronic signals convey information?
analog and digital signals
how do vacuum tubes control electron flow?
vacuum tubes can change alternating current into direct current, increase the strength of a signal, or turn a current on or off
what are two types of semi-conductors?
n-type: a flow of electrons
p-type:positive charge flows
how are semi-conductors used?
most modern electronic devices are controlled by solid-state components
what are the benefits of using microchips in communication devices?
communication devices use microchips to make them more portable, reliable, and affordable
the science of using electric current to process or transmit information
information sent as patterns in the controlled flow of electrons through a circuit
a solid-state component that combines an n-type and p-type semiconductor
a thin slice of silicon that contains many solid-state containers
a programmable device that can store and process information
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