Unit 5 AP Human Geography
Terms in this set (64)
Parts of the economy that draws raw material from the natural environment.
Part of the economy that transforms raw material into manufactured goods.
Part of the economy that involves services rather than goods. This grows with industrialization and comes to dominate the post industrial societies.
Post Industrial Societies
Countries where most people are no longer employed in industry.
Subset of the tertiary sector. It includes service jobs concerned with research and development, management and administration and processing and dismantling information. Mostly consists of intellectual activities.
This includes the highest levels of decision making in a society or economy.
5 countries with large % of primary
5 countries with large % of secondary
5 countries with large % of tertiary
The deliberate tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber.
The ways that land is distributed to individuals and used for food production are determined by culture, as functions of livestock, and the consumption of food from crops and animals.
Hunters and Gatherers
Hunters gained skills in capturing and killing animals, and gatherers learned which plants and fruits were edible and nutritious.
The drastic changes of life that happened independently in different places over a large span of time including the ability to settle
From these, farming practices diffused across the surface of the earth.
The changes that resulted include:
1) Increase in reliable food supplies
2) Rapid increase in total human population
3) Job Specialization
4) Widening of gender differences
Since men controlled agriculture production, this is commonly developed, with men holding the power in the family, the economy and the government.
Social system in which the woman have absolute authority/control over the family group.
In which new plants are produced by directly cloning them from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots.
Southwest Asia- taro and yam, banana, moved towards China and Japan to westward India then Africa and the Mediterranean Sea.
The production of plants through annual planting of seeds. This came later than vegetative planting.
From westward India to Southwest Asia where people domesticatd wheat and barley. In Southwest Asia the inhabitants also domesticated animals. Southwest Asia across Europe and North Africa. Eastward to Northwestern India and the Indus River Valley. From Northern China heart, millet diffused to South Asia and Southeast Asia.
The process by which humans tame animals in order to benefit humans.
Spatial origin of farming practices. Place where something/idea/event originally started.
Innovation in Seed Agriculture
Over the years many innovations increased the chances of success for seed agriculture practices.
When products were carried both ways across the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean.
Eastern Hemisphere Items
Wheat, rice, olives, grapes, bananas, rice, citrus fruits, melons, figs, sugar, coconuts, okra, horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, chickens, rabbits, rats.
Western Hemisphere Items
Beans, squash, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, chilis, chocolate, corn, potatoes, avocados, pineapple, manioc.
second Agricultural Revolution
This began in Western Europe during the late 1600s, which intensified agriculture by promoting higher yields per acre and per farmer.
Fencing or hedging large blocks of land for experiments with new techniques of farming.
Methods which carefully controlled nutrients of the soil. Different crops in each field. Changes each season.
This mechanism helped to plant seeds more effectively.
How did the 2nd AR lead to the Industrial Revolution?
as machines benefited farmers, farming methods became more efficient with the use of tractors for plowing soil
It is the production of only enough food to feed the farmers family, with no surpluses to sell. Some surplus may be sold to the government or to companies, but the surplus is not the farmer's primary purpose. This is most prevalent in less developed countries. (LDC)
The production of food surpluses, with most crops destined for sale to peopel outside the farmer's family. Mainly in more developed countries. Farmers in this mainly don't sell produce directly to consumers but to food-processing companies.
The system of commercial farming in more developed countries, because farming is integrated into a large food-production industry.
% of farmers (LDC v MDC)
LDC= high percentage of farming due to the need for survival since there is no surplus to sell
MDC= Well developed commercial agriculture allows people to pursure other activities, so smaller percentage of people are farmers.
Use of Machinery Impact
A key to successful development of commercial agriculture is the use of machinery to replace work done with hand tools and animal power.
Commercial farmers have advances in things- such as fertilizers, herbicides, and new breeds of plants and animals- that boost the crop yield and the health of their animals.
Farm Sizes (LDC v MDC)
LDC= they have smaller farms due to the lesser amounts that they can effectively farm
MDC= Because commercial farmers have machinery and scientific advances, they can farm far more larger amounts of land than substance farmers can.
This type of agriculture yields a large amount of output per acre through concentrated farming, but still only provides a substance living for farmers. Sometimes they may sell a little to others, but they usually raise crops for their own consumption. These are found in the large population concentration of East and South Asia, with water and low land, rice dominant in many areas,
Wet or Lowland Rice
This is planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved as seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth . This crop requires a great deal of time and attention, but under ideal conditions it can provide large amounts of food per unit of land. Other products include, maize, millet, peas, and beans. A little less than half of the people of the world are engaged in this type of farming.
Often referred to as "slash and burn" or swidden agriculture, this farming exists primarily in rain forest zones and Central and South America, West Africa, eastern and central Asia and most of Southern China and South East Asia. The obvious destruction to the environment is worsened y the frequency of the farmers movements.
The growing of various types of crops.
This alternative to sedentary agriculture is characterized by following the herds, just as the earlier hunters and gatherers did. However, the herds domesticated, and consists of sheep, goats, cows, reindeer, camels, and/or horses.
The practice of moving from one place to another. This is dictated by the need for pasture for the animals.
Extensive Subsistence Agriculture
Both shifting cultivation and pastoral nomadism are referred to as this because they involve large areas of land and minimal labor per land unit.
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
As this name implies, the farmers grow crops and raise livestock on the same land spread, with most of the crops fed to animals rather than people.
Where each field is planted on a planned cycle.
This consists of oats, wheat, rye, or barley.
A farm that produces milk. It must be closer to their market because milk spoils quickly. they also produce butter and cheese.
A ring of milk production that surrounds a major city.
This is where wheat is created. This is most important in areas such as Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma.
Winter Wheat Area
This is in Kansas, Colorado and Oklahoma, where the crop is planted in the autumn, survives the winter, and ripens the following summer.
Spring Wheat Area
In the Dakotas and Montana, where winters are too severe for winter Wheat.
Worlds Bread Basket
The prairies of North America.
this is the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area, and is often practiced in arid or semi-arid regions where climate conditions make crop production impractical.
This is another word for prairie.
This type of agriculture exists not only in the lands that borders the Mideterranean sea, but also in California, central Chile, Southern Africa, and Southwestern Australia.
The growing of fruits, vegetables and flowers.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming
This type of agriculture predominates in the US Southeast, a region with long growing season and humid climate and accessibility to the large markets of the Northeast.
Truck = Bartering
This is what they referred commercial gardening and fruit farming as.
is a large farm that specializes in one or two crops, and is found today in Latin America, Africa and Asia.
Crops that raise money for their owners.
intensive subsistence agriculture
involves the cultivation of small land plots through great amounts of labor, and yields per unit and area and population densities are both high.