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12 Principles of Animation
Terms in this set (12)
Squash and Stretch
Considered the most important principle. Gives a sense of weight and flexibility to drawn objects, In realistic animation, the most important aspect of this principle is the fact that an object's volume does not change when the effect is applied. If the length of the ball is stretched vertically, its width needs to contract correspondingly horizontally.
Used to prepare the audience for an action and to make the action appear more realistic. For example a dancer jumping off the floor has to bend his knees first; a golfer making a swing has to swing the club back first. For special effect, can be omitted in cases where it is expected.
Directs the audience's attention and makes it clear what is of greatest importance in a scene. Presents the idea in a complete and unmistakable method. Keeps the focus on what is relevant and avoids unnecessary detail.
Straight ahead action and pose to pose
Two different approaches to the actual drawing process. One draws out a scene frame by frame from beginning to end. One involves starting with drawing a few key frames and then filling in the intervals later. One is best for creating a more fluid, dynamic illusion of movement, and is better for producing realistic action sequences. The other is best for dramatic or emotional scenes, where compassion and relation to the surroundings are of greater importance.
Follow through and overlapping action
Helps render movement more realistic and gives the impression that characters follow the laws of physics. Exaggerated used of the technique can produce a comical effect, while more realistic animation must time the actions exactly to produce a convincing result.
Slow in and slow out
Adds more frames near the beginning and near the end of a movement, and fewer in the middle, to make the animation appear more realistic. This principle applies to both characters moving between two extreme poses and inanimate, moving objects.
Used to make the movement of most human and animal actions appear more realistic. Can apply to a moving limb by rotating a joint or a thrown object moving alone a parabolic trajectory. The exception to this is mechanical movement, which typically moves in straight lines.
Gives a scene more life and can help to support the main action. They emphasize, rather than take attention away from the main action. If this effect does take away from the main action, it is best left out.
Essential to both physical realism and the storytelling of the animation. On a purely physical level, makes objects appear to abide to the laws of physics. Can also be used as a device to convey deep emotions or communicate aspects of a character's personality.
Especially useful for animation as a perfect imitation of reality can look static and dull. Level of this effect depends on whether one seeks realism or comedy. Can involve the supernatural or surreal, alteration in the physical features of a character, or elements of the storyline itself.
Means that the same principles apply to an animator as to an academic artist. Animator must understand the basics of anatomy, composition, weight, balance, light and shadow, etc.
Corresponds to what would be called charisma in an actor. Helps the view to feel the character is real and interesting.
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