AP Latin - Caesar: Gallic War People & Places Review
Books 1, 4, 5, 6, 7
Terms in this set (92)
a tribe inhabiting one of three main regions of Gaul; separated from the Gauls/Celts by the Garumna River; bordered by Pyrenean Mountains and the part of the ocean near Spain
a Sueban, king of the Germans; in 71 B.C., he was invited into Gaul by the Averni and Sequani to help them gain the sovereignty over all Gaul; he defeated the Aedui and made them tributary to the Sequani; when Caesar saw how dangerous a large number of Germans living in Gaul was to the Romans, he defeated him in Alsace and drove him across the Rhine and back into Germany - 58 B.C.
Lucius Cornelius Balbus
attached himself to Caesar, and, in conjunction with Oppius, had the entire management of Caesar's affairs at Rome. Subsequently, he became Caesar's private secretary. He took care that Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic war should be continued; and accordingly the 8th book of the Commentarii de Bello Gallico(which was probably written by his friend Hirtius at his instigation) is dedicated to him.
tribe inhabiting one of three main regions of Gaul; strongest of three tribes because farthest from the Roman Province, merchants rarely come to them, and they import "things which weaken their minds" (wine). very close to Germans, with whom they wage war often. Divided from Gaul by the Metrona and Sequana Rivers
by far the largest and richest town of the Aedui; south of it, Caesar defeated the Helvetii and their allies in 58 BC; in Book 7, it is the city where a council of Gallic leaders meets and retains Vercingetorix as general after he defends himself of treason charges
Tribe who previously dwelt across the Rhine and had crossed into Norican territory, attacking the capital city of Noreia. They are accepted as allies by the Helvetians.
Calpurnius 2 (L. Calpurnius Piso Caesioninus)
consul in 58 B.C.; he was the father of Caesar's wife, Calpurnia
Calpurnius 1 (L. Calpurnius Piso)
grandfather of Caesar's father-in-law; killed while fighting beside Lucius Cassius against the Helvetian Tigurini in 107 B.C.; Caesar avenged their deaths by routing the Tigurini at the Arar River in 58 B.C.
Consul who was killed and his army defeated by the Helvetians in 107 BC. Caesar remembers this event when deciding not to let the Helvetii pass through. Cassius's death is avenged when Caesar kills the Tigurini. Divico lead the force that killed him.
son of Catamantaloedis, whose father ruled the Sequani for many years and was declared by the Senate a friend of Rome; persuaded by Orgetorix to seize power in his state
Sequanian noble who previously held power in his state; his father ruled the Sequani for many years and was declared by the Senate a friend of Rome
tribe inhabiting one of three main regions of Gaul; separated from the Aquitani by Garumna River, separated from the Belgians by the Metrona and Sequana Rivers; bordered by the Rhone River, Garumna River, the ocean, the Metrona and Sequana, and the Rhine River
Cimbri and Teutones
a Germanic tribe from the place we now call Denmark. They were headed south in search of land and plunder, defeated a Roman force and captured a consul; attempted to settle for peace with Rome offering themselves as mercenaries; they were eventually defeated by Marius.
Marcus Licinius Crassus
defeated Spartacus and the slave revot in 71 B.C.; member of the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Caesar; killed in battle at Carrhae in 54 B.C. (Parthian War); his son, by the same name, served as a quaestor with Caesar
Publius Licinius Crassus
younger son of the triumvir, he served on Caesar's staff and subdued Aquitania in 56 B.C.
Diviciacus (the Haeduan/Aeduan)
brother of Dumnorix; rules the Aedui after his brother; fails to support the Roman army with supplies; he had, in previous years, personally addressed the Roman Senate seeking military assistance for his tribe & had been a guest in Cicero's home
leader of the Aedui, prevails on the Sequani to allow the Helvetii to march, brother of Diviciacus, suspected of inciting rebellion, Caesar warns him and sends spies to watch
the Gallic province nearest Rome (on the same side of the Alps as Rome)
The Gallic Province across the Alps, further from Rome
a river that separates the Aquitani from the Gauls
a city belonging to the Allobroges, attacked by the Helvetii
the area on the Eastern side of the Rhine river (separates them and the Belgians), the people there were considered by Caesar to be the bigger and tougher than any the Gauls
a tribe across the Rhine from the Roman Province, under the control of Orgetorix, decide to continue with their journey even after his execution
modern-day Turkey, the area to the East of Italy
a mountain range that stretches from the Rhine to the Rhone and separates the Helvetii from the Sequani
Labienus (Q. Atius Labienus)
Caesar's most trusted lieutenant, sent ahead to set up camp when fighting the Helvetii
The lake bordering Genava
consul seven times, who reformed the military by allowing non-land-holding citizens to join the troops
The river separating the Gauls and the Belgians
a colleague of Caesar's who is sent to Ariovistus because he can speak the Gallic language. Ariovistus calls him a spy and casts him in chains.
the ruler of Pontus, a region southeast of Rome
of Rhodes, teacher of rhetoric to both Cicero and Caesar
most distinguished and wealthy Helvetian, had a plan to move the Helvetii and unite Gaul, is caught by the Helvetians who do not try him for treason and pleads his case, commits suicide
member of the first triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus, becomes Caesar's political enemy, is defeated by Caesar in the Battle of Pharsalus, flees to Egypt and is beheaded by King Ptolmey
mountains that separate France from Spain
the river that separates the Gauls from the Germans
the river that separates the Gauls from the Belgians
Sulla (Lucius Cornelius Sulla [Felix])
dictator of the Roman Republic in 81 BC, suceeded by Caesar, ruled during the factionary conflict between the populares and optimates, targeted Caesar in his proscription campaigns because of his ambition
lived near the Meuse River; Vercingetorix recruited troops from them in 52 BC
aquilifer legiōnis decimae
in the invasion of Britain, when the Roman troops were hesitating, he grabbed the standard and jumped off the ship, causing his comrades and those on the other ships to follow
charioteer -- Gallic chariots were built for two poeple, the auriga and fighter; the auriga would get the fighter into the action, the fighter would jump off the chariot and the auriga would withdraw to a safe distance, ready to rescue the figher if necessary
Commius (the Atrebatian)
appointed king of his tribe by Caesar & sent as an ambassador to Britain, but in 52 BC, he changed allegiance and joied the rebellion fighting for Vercingetorix
fighter in a Gallic war chariot - the auriga delivered him to the fighting, then he jumped out of the chariot and fought as a footsoldier
Gallic war chariot, mentioned in the British campaign
Caesar set sail from their land toward Britain in the first invasion; he later sent Titus Labienus there to put down an uprising among the people
a river in northwestern Gaul which flows into the North Sea
pōns trāns Rhēnum
completed in 10 days; Caesar crossed over into Germany for the first invasion
large river, natural boundary between the Gauls and Germans
he died fighting Ambiorix; he had opposed Sabinus' advice, wanting instead to remain in winter camp and wait for orders from Caesar
during the first invasion of Britain, a sudden storm prevented 18 ships carrying the cavalry from landing, forcing them to sail back to the continent
Caesar's right hand man, commander of the 10th Legion; during the Civil War, he deserted Caesar and supported Pompey and the Senatorial faction
with the Tencteri, they crossed the Rhine invaded Gaul when the Suebi drove them from their own lands
with the Usipetes, they crossed the Rhine invaded Gaul when the Suebi drove them from their own lands
a Gallic tribe, held Ambiorix's son and nephew prisoner, rallies behind Ambiorix to attack Cicero's winter-camp
very persuasive leader of the Eburones, incites rebellion, tricks Sabinus and Cotta by pretending to be their ally, attacks Cicero's camp after defeating Sabinus and Cotta; escapes from Caesar's grasp several times
intimate friend of Sabinus, Roman cavalry man, previously sent to Ambiorix for conference by Caesar, sent by Sabinus and Cotta to confer with Ambiorix
led the first century in previous years, struck by spears in both thighs while fighting under Sabinus and Cotta against Ambiorix
a Gallic tribe, their leader, Tasgetius, appointed by Caesar is murdered in book 5, Caesar sends Lucius Plancus to find the murderers; in book 6, they provide the location of the Druidic court
Quintus Tullius Cicero
commander who controls winter-camp near the Nervii, attacked by Ambiorix, refuses to heed Ambiorix's warning to leave, maintains the fight against Ambiorix
Lucius Arunculeius Cotta
in charge of winter-camp with Sabinus, approached by Ambiorix, doubts Ambiorix's trustworthiness, wants to stay in camp, gives in to Sabinus and leaves, maintains calm when attacked by Ambiorix, gives men instruction and fights bravely, is hit in the mouth by a slingshot, refuses to have a conference with Ambiorix, is killed fighting Ambiorix
Marcus Licinius Crassus (son)
quaestor, in charge of camp among the Bellovaci, leaves when called by Caesar, put in charge of Samarobriva (stronghold in Gaul) by Caesar
duces principesque Nerviorum
persuaded by Ambiorix to join the fight, seek conference with Cicero, try to convince him to leave the winter-camp
a Gallic tribe whom the Romans are fighting against, specifically Sabinus and Cotta, Ambiorix is the leader of them, they want the Romans' possessions
a Spanish cavalryman in Caesar's army, sent to confer with Ambiorix
a Gallic tribe who fight against the Romans in Cicero's camp; they learn a lot about Roman fighting from Roman hostages and use Roman tactics (siege warfare) against the Romans; Caesar marches against them and compels them to surrender. The Ardennes forest stretches all the way to their territory.
brave standard bearer who sacrifices his life to preserve the honor of the legion during the Eburones' attack of Sabinus and Cotta's legion
Lucius Munarius Plancus
a lieutenant of Caesar whose legion is in the territory of the Bellovaci, along with Marcus Crassus and Gauis Trebonius; ordered to to lead his legion to the Carnutes and arrest the murderers of Tasgetius
rival of Vorenus, gets hit by a javelin which pierces his shield, helps Vorenus after Vorenus helps him
quidam ex equitibus Gallis
Gallic cavalry messenger sent by Caesar who carried a letter, written in Greek, to Cicero. When he feared that he was in danger, he threw a spear with the letter tied on into Cicero's camp, where it hit a tower.
commander of the 13th Legion who wintered with a legion in the territory of the Esubii
Quintus Titurius Sabinus
lieutenant who was stationed, along with Cotta, with a legion among the Eburones, which were under the authority of Ambiorix and Catuvolcus. When Ambiorix warns that the Germans are going to attack, he argues that the Romans must retreat. They are then attacked by the Eburones, and he is frightened and confused. He sends a certain soldier named Pompey to mediate with Ambiorix, and later meets with Ambiorix himself, where he is killed.
city in Belgian Gaul where Caesar leaves behind the baggage train, hostages of the states, official papers, and all the corn when he sets out for the territory of the Nervii. Caesar leaves Crassus in charge and assigns a legion
a Carnute whose ancestors had ruled the cities. Caesar restores his rule in return for his services, but he was killed by personal enemies during his third year of his reign
the slave who carries a letter to Caesar telling of the attacks on Cicero's camp.
a Nervian who deserted to Caesar's army. he sends his slave to deliver a letter to Caesar telling of the danger of Cicero's camp
a centurion, personal rival of Titus Pullo, follows Pullo out of Cicero's camp; when Pullo's shield is pierced by a javelin, this man comes to Pullo's aid; when he falls down, Pullo in turn helps him.
Caesar takes all the baggage of the legions here, stronghold in the Eburones, where Sab. and Cotta. had been encamped in Book 5. Germans attack this stronghold to go after the Roman baggage.
leader of one of the factions in Gaul. The Sequani try to overtake them in power with the help of the Germans, but Caesar's arrival restores their power, and the Sequani are replaced by the Remi.
the God of the Underworld. The Gauls believe that they are descended from the Underworld God of their culture. However, Caesar uses this name so that Roman readers can understand it in terms that they know
Legate, Caesar divides his forces between him and Crassus, destroy the fields of the Menapii in 6.6, forcing them to surrender hostages.
large forest located in central Europe, home to many unusual animals. 60 days' march long, 9 days' march wide.
The Sequani were the leaders of one of the main factions. They once were weak but they made an alliance with Ariovistus and the Germans. They then defeated the Aedui (leaders of the of the other faction). They made the Aedui swear not to attack them, and then became the powerful faction of Gaul
Germanic tribe, allies with the Helvetii; their king is Ariovistus sends reinforcements against Caesar, mustered forces at a single point, retreat into the forests upon news of Caesar's arrival, wait for him on the edge of forest, Caesar changes plan and doesn't pursue them.
German tribe that lives beside the Rhine.When Caesar invites all the Gauls to plunder the Eburones, they move in and take the most. They ultimately are led to Cicero's camp where the baggage is; lay siege to Cicero; only dispelled by the arrival of Caesar and the main forces of the Romans.
One of Caesar's officers. Caesar sends him with a legion to lay waste to territory bordering the Aduatuci.
Gallic people of German origin, urge Germans to support Gauls, don't attend assembly, Labienus constructs camp near them, Caesar sends two legions to winter at border.
German tribe who sends hostages to Caesar because they want to show that they have not betrayed them and sent reinforcements to the Treveri. They inform Caesar about the Suebi and Caesar orders them to draw their cattle from the fields into the towns to draw the Suebi into battle on unfavorable ground.
One of the two elite classes of Gaul; deal with religious issues; also have a juridical role; no military service or taxes; transmigration of souls
city that was the last stand for Gaul; strongest and best fortified; Caesar surrounded it with multiple defenses and starved the people out
Roman allies who lived south of the Rhone in Provincia Nostra; Caesar protected them from the Helvetii; Vercingetorix tried to lure them away by promising them sovereignty over the Roman province of Gaul
a member of the Arverni tribe; in 52 BC united the Gallic tribes against Caesar; surrendered when the Gallic uprising was crushed
Roman scout; misinterprets the battle situation and causes Caesar to miss an easy victory over the Helvetii (book 1)
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