61 terms

Evolution Exam Review

This is a review for the General Biology Evolution Exam at South Sevier High School.
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Natural Selection
Organisms with traits that are well suited to an environment are more likely to survive (survival of the fittest) and produce more offspring than organisms with these favorable items. Charles Darwin named this process.
Artificial Selection
When a breeder creates a new breed of dog by crossing two breeds that have not been crossed before.
Vestigial Structures
Structures found in the human body that no longer have a function (e.g. appendix, male mammae, ear muscles, wisdom teeth).
4.6 Billion Years
The current geologic age of the Earth.
Primates
Opposable thumbs, binocular 3D true color vision, long flexible arms, large brain per body size.
Chimpanzee
Our closest LIVING relative.
East Africa
Based on fossil evidence, where do evolutionary scientists and anthropologists believe that modern humans had their start?
Homologous
The wing of a bat and the forelimb of a dog have the same bone structure, but have different functions. They are called ______ structures.
Extinct
A sudden climatic change (like an ice age) may cause many organisms to go _____________.
Because continents are moving
Why do we find tropical rain forest fossils (like palm trees in Antarctica?
Crossing over in meiosis
What is the name of the process that prevents cloning?
Intermediate fossil
A creature that appears to be the mixture of two different species. A creature like Tiktaalik appeared to be both fish and amphibian at the same time.
Bacteria
The earliest fossils ever found are of these creatures.
Prokaryotic
The first forms of life on the Earth would have been single-celled and would have lacked a nucleus. What is the word that means without a nucleus?
Spontaneous Generation
A belief that life can come from non-life?
Galapagos
The islands where Darwin came up with many of his ideas on Evolution.
No
Can evolution occur when there is no genetic variation?
Analogous
A butterfly wing and a bat wing serve the same function, but are not made from the same materials. The wings are said to be ______.
Coevolution
Many plants have evolved with insects in such a way that only that type of insect can pollinate the plant's flowers. This is called _____.
Small
Which type of population would most susceptible to an increase in genetic mutation, a large or a small population?
She was bipedal
Lucy was a small primate with a small brain. What special trait did she have that made her "special"?
Homo sapiens
What is our scientific name?
Antibiotic resistance
A modern form of evolution having to do with bacteria.
At the bottom
Where are the oldest rocks at the Grand Canyon?
Uniformitarianism
The Theory of _____ states that the Earth is constantly changed through slow, steady processes (e.g. erosion volcanoes) that takes place over millions of years.
Morphology or Anatomy
Comparing the similarities in structures like the forelimbs of animals is called comparative _______.
Speciation
_____ is the process by which populations of one species split and become two new species.
Birds
What living group of animals are most closely related to the dinosaurs.
Oxygen
What gas was missing in the Earth's early atmosphere?
A large asteroid hit the Earth, causing ash and dust to block out sunlight. This caused global cooling. The food web snapped, and dinosaurs starved to death.
What is the most accepted explanation for the mass extinction of the dinosaurs?
Holocene epoch of the Quaternary period of the Cenozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon.
The time in which we now live.
Carboniferous
The coal, oil, and natural gas we use today came from ancient swamps that appeared during the ________ period.
Devonian
This period is known as the "Age of Fishes".
The Overproduction of Offspring
Darwin noticed that the finches on the Galapagos Islands lay enormous numbers of eggs. This is a survival mechanism called ____.
Gene Pool
The sum of all the genes in a given population is called the ____.
Divergent
Horses, humans, cats, and bats have all evolved similar structures in their forelimbs. Even though they are made out of the same materials, they each do different things. This is called ______ evolution.
3.5
According to the geologic time scale, the first forms of life appeared on the Earth approximately _____ billion years ago (bya) .
Triassic
Mammals first appear in the fossil record in the _______ period.
Most has come from green algae.
Where did the oxygen come from that we now breathe?
21%
What percentage of oxygen is in the air on the beach in California?
No
If you could go back in time and walk through a Permian forest, would you see any flowers?
Camouflage
This snake is colored so that it blends in to its surroundings. This is called _______.
Mimicry
This is a leaf insect. It is trying to look like a leaf in order to protect itself from predators. This is called _____.
Yes.
Can pollution cause evolution to happen in a species?
Convergent
Sharks (a fish), Ichthyosaurs (a reptile), and dophins (a mammal) have solved the same problem of swimming, but are each very different from each other. This form of evolution is called ______ evolution.
Comparative Embryology
Comparing the embryos of different species is called _____.
Common ancestor
Humans and chimpanzees are not directly evolved from each other. Instead, we share a ___________.
23,000 (about the same as a chicken)
The human genome has approximately _______ genes.
Quadraped
An animal that walks on four limbs is called a _____.
Biped
An animal that walks on two limbs is called a _____.
Anthropoids
Human-like primates are called _______.
Diurnal, Nocturnal
Creatures that are active during the day are called _____ and creatures that are active and night are called _____.
Less UV light hitting the body, easier to see predator and prey, can carry things while moving.
What are some advantages of bipedalism?
Homo
What would be the Genus name of our closest relative?
Bipedalism
What trait do all hominids have in common?
Lucy
Which of the following evolved first? Old World Monkeys (no tails), New World Monkeys (tails), Lucy, Homo sapiens
5
There have been at least ____ mass extinctions on the Earth.
6,000
The biblical view puts the Earth at about _____ years old.
Charles Darwin
The Father of modern Evolution.
Cosmozoic Theory
A theory that explains that came from outer space.
Catastrophism
The belief that the Earth formed very quickly, all at once, with all creatures appearing at once.
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