46 terms

Physical science comprehensive study guide

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chemical equations
a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products
law of conservation of matter
states that matter is neither created nor destroyed, only changed in form
subscript
a number in a chemical formula that tells the number of atoms in a molecule or the ratio of elements in a compound
Exothermic
Chemical Reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat
Endothermic
..., A reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat
ionization
the condition of being dissociated into ions (as by heat or radiation or chemical reaction or electrical discharge)
motion
An object's change in position relative to a reference point.
displacement
Distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point.
vector
A quantity that has both size and direction
velocity
speed in a given direction
scalar
a physical quantity that has magnitude but no direction
momentum
the force or speed with which something moves
acceleration
an increase in speed
force
A push or a pull
friction
A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact
net force
The combination of all forces acting on an object
balanced forces
forces acting on an object that combine and form a net force of zero
unbalanced forces
Forces that produce a nonzero net force, which changes an object's motion
gravity
A force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses.
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
An object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
inertia
the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion
energy
The ability to do work or cause change
potential energy
stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object
kinetic energy
the energy an object has due to its motion
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only change forms
temperature
A measure of how hot or cold something is.
thermal energy
The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance
heat
The energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures
conduction
The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching.
convection
The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
radiation
The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius
insulator
A material that does not conduct heat well
conductor
A material that allows heat and electricity to pass through it.
voltage
The potential difference measured in volts. The amount of work to be done to move a charge from one point to another along an electric circuit.
resistance
an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current
electric current
a flow of electricity through a conductor
static electricity
The buildup of electric charges on an object
electric circuit
an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow
parallel circuit
circuit in which electric current can follow more than one path
series circuit
a circuit in which the objects are connected in a single path
circuit breaker
a device that trips like a switch and opens the circuit when overloaded
International System of Units
A system of measurement based on multiples of ten and on established measures of mass, length, and time.
Inertia
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
experimental group
the group in an experiment that receives the variable being tested
problem
always in form of a question; the question we are trying to answer by doing the experiment

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