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APUSH - Chapters 1-25 FINAL Study Guide
Terms in this set (100)
The settlement founded in the early 1600s that was the most consequential for the future United States was the
English at Jamestown in 1607.
The English treatment of the Irish, under the reign of Elizabeth I, can be best described as
violent and unjust.
The first English attempt at colonization in 1585 was in
england as the 17th century opened up had
1) Increasing employment
2) A large population boom
3) An economic depression hit which displaced thousands of farmers
4) Enclosed crop lands, thus forcing small farmers off the land
The early years at Jamestown were mainly characterized by
starvation, disease, and frequent Indian raids.
Captain John Smith's role at Jamestown can be best described as
saving the colony from collapse.
The colony of South Carolina prospered because
it developed close economic ties with the British West Indies.
The colony of Georgia was founded because
it served as a defensive buffer for the Carolinas.
Colonists in both the North and the South established differences in
patterns of settlement, economies, political systems, and values.
In Puritan doctrine, the "elect" were also referred to as
Puritan religious beliefs allowed
drinking alcohol; eating plentifully; making love discreetly; singing songs.
King Philip's War resulted in
the lasting defeat of New England's Indians.
The population of the Chesapeake colonies, throughout the first half of the seventeenth century, was notable for its
scarcity of women.
Bacon's Rebellion was supported mainly by
young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land.
Puritans refused to recognize a woman's separate property rights because
they worried that such rights would undercut the unity of married persons.
As a result of the rapid population growth in colonial America during the eighteenth century
a momentous shift occurred in the balance of power between the colonies and the mother country.
The Scots-Irish can best be described as
In North Carolina, spearheaded by the Scots-Irish, a small insurrection against eastern domination of the colony's affair was known
as the Regulator Movement.
The population of the thirteen American colonies was
perhaps the most diverse in the world, although it remained predominantly Anglo-Saxon.
The Great Awakening was the
first spontaneous mass movement of the American people.
The War of Jenkins' Ear resulted in
British troops being involved in every territory in North America.
The clash between Britain and France for control of the North American continent sprang from their rivalry for control of the
Ohio River Valley.
The long-range purpose of the Albany Congress in 1754 was to
achieve colonial unity and common defense against the French threat.
Benjamin Franklin's plan for colonial home rule was rejected by the individual colonies because
it did not seem to give enough independence to the colonies.
When William Pitt became prime minister during the Seven Years' War, he
focused his military strategy on the capture of French Canada.
The 1759 Battle of Quebec was
one of the most significant victories in British and American history.
As a result of the Seven Years' War, Great Britain
became the dominant power in North America.
The disunity that existed in the colonies before the Seven Years' War can be attributed to
1) the enormous distance between the colonies
2) geographical barriers like rivers
3) conflicting religions
4) varied nationalities
The Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
The result of American opposition to the Townshend Acts was
British officials sent regiments of troops to Boston to restore law and order.
The new Republic passed a major test when
power was peacefully transferred from the conservative Federalists to the more liberal Jeffersonians in the election of 1800.
The American Revolution was
an example of accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution.
Early signs of the abolitionist movement can be seen in the
emancipation of some slaves.
The Founders failed to eliminate slavery because
a fight over slavery might destroy national unity.
The most important outcome of the Revolution for white women was that they
were elevated as special keepers of the nation's conscience.
As a result of the Revolution, many state capitals were relocated westward
to get them away from the haughty eastern seaports.
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when
all states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government.
The Articles of Confederation left Congress unable to
enforce a tax-collection program.
Shay's Rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for
A strong central government.
The federalists believe that the sovereignty of the people resided in which branch of the central government?
Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. (All of these)
The Bill of Rights was intended to protect __________ against the political tyranny of ___________
individual liberties, a strong central government.
The __________ Amendment might rightly be called the states' rights amendment.
Alexander Hamilton believed that a limited national debt
was beneficial, because people to whom the government owed money would work hard to make the nation a success.
The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government
enforced excise tax on whiskey and had tariffs.
Opposition by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton resulted in
the formation of permanent political parties.
The United States acquired free navigation of the Mississippi River, the rights of deposit at New Orleans, and the large disputed territory north of Florida in
the Pinckney Treaty.
America's campaign against Canada in the War of 1812 was
poorly conceived because it split up the military and ultimately a failure.
The Battle of New Orleans unleashed
a wave of nationalism and self confidence.
At the peace conference at Ghent, the British began to withdraw many of its earlier demands because
1) of reverses in upper New York
2) a loss at Baltimore
3) increasing war weariness in Britain
4) concern about the still-dangerous France
What were the results of the Missouri Compromise?
Missouri was admitted as a slave state, but Maine was created as a free state. Also, the 36 degree 30' latitude line was created to decide on the condition of slavery in a state.
In McCulloch v. Maryland, Cohens v. Virginia, and Gibbons v. Ogden, Chief Justice Marshall rulings limited the extent of
The Monroe Doctrine was an
expression of the illusion of deepening American isolationism from world affairs.
The new two-party political system that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s became an important part of
the nations checks and balances.
The purpose behind the spoils system was
to reward political supporters with public office.
The government of Mexico and the Americans who settled in Mexican-controlled Texas clashed over
3) local rights
4) Santa Anna raising an army to use against Texas
The Irish immigrants to early nineteenth-century America were
mostly Roman Catholics and hated the British.
The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called
As a result of the development of the cotton gin
slavery revived and expanded.
Religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening resulted in
a stronger religious influence in many areas of American life including abolitionism and benevolent and charitable organizations.
Two areas where women in the nineteenth century were widely thought to be superior to men were
moral sensibility and artistic refinement.
"Civil Disobedience," an essay that later influenced both Mathatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., was written by
American transcendalist Henry David Thoreau.
As a result of the introduction of the cotton gin
slavery was reinvigorated in the South.
Plantation mistresses had to
command sizable household staffs of mostly female slaves.
Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by
Harriett Beecher Stowe.
Northern attitudes toward free blacks can best be described as
liking the individual but despising the race.
Characteristics of slaves in the mid-nineteenth century United States
1) had no civil or political rights
2) usually toiled from dusk to dawn in the fields
3) had minimal protection from murder or unusually cruel punishment
4) forbidden to testify in court and their marriages were not legal
One argument against annexing Texas to the United States was that the annexation
might give more power to the supporters of slavery.
In his quest for California, President James K. Polk wanted to buy
the area from Mexico.
In 1846, the United States went to war with Mexico because
1) of the ideology of Manifest Destiny
2) the deaths of American soldiers at the hands of Mexicans
3) the desire to gain payment for damage claims against the Mexican government
4) Polk's desire to acquire California
The terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ending the Mexican War included
United States payment of $15 million for the cession of northern Mexico.
The Wilmot Proviso, introduced into Congress during the Mexican War, declared that
slavery would be banned from all territories that Mexico ceded to the United States.
The Free Soil party of 1848 harbored many northerners who stood squarely against slavery in the territories primarily on the grounds
that it destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise up from wage-earning dependence.
The public liked popular sovereignty because it
fit in with the democratic tradition of self-determination.
The South grew increasingly worried about the future of slavery because
the admission of California might permanently tip the political balance against them.
Harriett Tubman gained fame
by helping slaves escape to Canada.
The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 included
1) denial of a jury trial
2) denial of fleeing slaves' right to testify on their own behalf
3) the penalty of imprisonment for northerners who helped slaves to escape
4) a higher payment if officials determined blacks to be runaways
Undoubtedly the most durable offspring of the Kansas-Nebraska blunder was
the new Republican political party.
In 1857, the Supreme Court ruled in the Dred Scott decision that
protection of slavery was guaranteed in all the territories of the West.
In 1856, the breaking point over slavery in Kansas came with
a deadly armed attack and partial burning of the the free-soil town of Lawrence by a gang of proslavery raiders.
The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated the impracticality of _______________ in the territories.
In ruling on the Dred Scott case, the United States Supreme Court
issued a broad judicial decision ruling that Congress could not prohibit slavery in the federal territories.
For a majority of northerners, the most outrageous part of the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott case was
that Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory.
In his raid on Harpers Ferry, John Brown intended to
call upon the slaves to rise and establish a black free state.
When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election, people in South Carolina rejoiced because
it gave them an excuse to secede.
"Lame-duck" President James Buchanan believed that
the Constitution did not authorize him to force southern states to stay in the Union.
In declaring their independence, the Confederate States relied heavily on the example of the
principles of self-determination of the Declaration of Independence.
In 1861, many Northerners were willing to allow Southern states to leave the Union until
the South attacked Fort Sumter.
During the Civil War, most of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory of present-day Oklahoma
supported the Confederacy.
As the Civil War began, the South seemed to have the advantage of
more talented military leaders.
Johnny Reb tended to be
jocular, emotional, religious, and breed to fight.
Billy Yank tended to be all of the following
Literate, intellectual, practical, efficient.
The South believed that the British would come to its aid because
Britain was dependent on Southern cotton.
During the Civil War, most of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory of present-day Oklahoma
supported the Confederacy.
France abandoned its attempt to control Mexico when
the United States threatened to force France to leave.
During the Civil War relations with Canada
were at times were very poor.
As leader of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis
defied rather than was led by public opinion.
In Lincoln's attempts to preserve the Union, had some questionable acts
1) proclaimed blockade of southern ports
2) expanded size of federal army
3) suspended the writ of habeas corpus
4) advanced federal funds to private citizens without authorization
During the Civil War, the Union
launched the National Banking System in 1863.
As a result of the Civil War, the Northern economy
greatly expanded its industrial and technological productivity.
During the Civil War, women in the North
had new opportunities opened to them in industry.
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