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Terms in this set (83)
language used in the learning of academic subject matter in formal schooling context; aspects of language strongly associated with literacy and academic achievement, including specific academic terms or technical language and speech registers related to each field of study.
an enrichment process where students acquire a second language with no fear of native language loss or abandonment of their own cultural identity.
BICS - Cummins
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills;
refers to conversational language.
Social / Conversational
1 - 2 years
native like knowledge of two cultures; includes the ability to respond effectively to different demands of these two cultures.
instruction in two languages, usually a native and a second language.
enriched program where students learn knowledge and skills in two languages.
capability to read, write, listen, and speak with nativelike skill and comprehension in two languages.
CALP - Cummins
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency;
refers to the academic languages of the disciplines.
5 - 7 years
using more than one language interchangeably within the same sentence/conversation.
carefully making instruction understood by using strategies that scaffold language acquisition.
a model of language education that integrates language and content instruction in the second language classroom; a second language learning approach where second language teachers use instructional materials, learning tasks and classroom techniques from academic content areas as the vehicle for developing second language, content, cognitive and study skills.
capability to respond to others with consideration, respect, and sensitivity due to an increased awareness of the need to recognize and validate interpersonal/cultural differences.
a sum total of the ways of life of a people; includes norms, learned behavior patterns, attitudes and artifacts; also involves traditions, habits or customs; how people behave, feel and interact; the means by which they order and interpret the world; ways of perceiving, relating and interpreting events based on established social norms; a system of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating and acting.
developmental bilingual education
attempts to preserve and enhance students' skills in the native language while they acquire a second language
dual language immersion (DLI)
provides instruction in two languages for English speakers and non-native speakers of English; the goals of the program promote bilingualism, biliteracy, high academic achievement, and multiculturalism.
removing students from supportive and additive bilingual programs at the earliest date possible towards total immersion in the second/target language.
English as a Second Language;
students receive specified periods of instruction aimed at the development of English language skills, with a primary focus to learn the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skill for reading and language arts.
Program required if 1 or more students speak a second language
program that provides language assistance to English language learners by pulling them out of mainstream reading/language arts classes and providing them accommodated English instruction.
English Speakers of other Languages;
refers to recent immigrant students in high schools in the state of Texas.
Foreign Language in the Elementary School;
provides instruction in a second language to help students reach functional proficiency in all content areas in the targeted language. Listening and speaking the language is somewhat more emphasized than reading and writing. The program emphasizes the learning of the 5 C's: Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons, and Communities.
Foreign Language Exploratory;
enables students at all grade levels to learn basic phrases in one or more language; develop an awareness and appreciation of foreign cultures; and develop an appreciation of the value of communicating in another language. Although students do not attain any degree of language proficiency, the program motivates students to study foreign language and enhances the students' understanding of English.
a language other than an individual's native language.
language(s) spoken in the home by significant others (e.g., family members, caregivers) who reside in the child's home; sometimes used as a synonym for the first language, primary language or native language.
children are taught a second language through subject-matter instruction in that language, with an emphasis on contextual clues and with lessons geared to students' level of competence
a student who comes from a home in which a language other than English is primarily spoken; the student may or may not speak English well
the level of competence at which an individual is able to use language for both basic communicative tasks and academic purpose
mental activities or actions that assist in enhancing learning outcomes; may include metacognitive strategies (e.g., planning for learning, monitoring one's own comprehension and production, evaluating one's performance), cognitive strategies (e.g., mental or physical manipulation of the material) or social/affective strategies (e.g., interacting with another person to assist learning, using self-talk to persist at a difficult task until resolution)
developmental bilingual program where students are taught in two languages for the longest time possible, preferably PK-12.
Languages Other Than English;
division of the Texas Education Agency that coordinates the development of the TEKS and all instructional activities in foreign language programs.
maintenance bilingual education
attempts to preserve and enhance students' skills in the native language while they acquire a second language
ability to speak more than two languages; proficiency in many languages
primary or first language spoken by an individual
one-way dual language
bilingual program where homogeneous groups of students (English language learners) are instructed in the TEKS in two languages.
first or native language spoken by an individua
providing instructional support/guidance in such a way that students transition from a state of dependence on the teacher to independence.
an approach in which students develop knowledge in specific subject areas through the medium of English, their second language; teachers adjust the language demands of the lesson in many ways, such as modifying speech rate and tone, using context clues and models extensively, relating instruction to student experience, adapting the language of texts or tasks and using certain methods familiar to language teachers (e.g., demonstrations, visuals, graphic organizers or cooperative work) to make academic instruction more accessible to students of different English proficiency levels
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol;
an observation tool that teachers can use to plan sheltered lessons and to hold themselves accountable for the instructional needs of English language learners in the content areas.
the aspects of language proficiency strongly associated with basic fluency in face-to-face interaction; natural speech in social interactions, including those that occur in a classroom
all students in the program are English-language learners, usually, though not always, from different language backgrounds; they receive instruction in English, with an attempt to adjust the level of English so subject matter is comprehensible; typically, there is no native language support
an erosive process that refers to the gradual abandonment or subtraction of a child's primary language and its cultural accomplishments for English
transitional bilingual education
provides a portion of instruction in LEP children's native language to help them keep up in school subjects, while they study English in programs designed for second-language learners
two-way bilingual immersion program
a program in which monolingual English- speaking children study the regular school curriculum alongside children who are native speakers of the target, or second, language; a portion of the instructional day is taught in English and another portion is in the target language; aims for additive bilingualism and biculturalism for all the students involved
Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria:
musical-rhythmic, visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
The goal of a balanced literacy program is to include the strongest elements of each.
The components of a 'balanced literacy' approach are as follows: The read aloud, guided reading, shared reading, interactive writing, shared writing, Reading Workshop, Writing Workshop and Word study
Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject.
Multisensory instruction is a way of teaching that engages more than one sense at a time. For kids with reading issues like dyslexia, the use of sight, hearing, movement and touch can be helpful for learning. Here are a few of many possible examples of multisensory techniques teachers use to help struggling readers.
a framework or philosophy for effective teaching that involves providing different students with different avenues to learning (often in the same classroom) in terms of acquiring content.
any of the speech sounds that represent a single phoneme, such as the aspirated k in kit and the unaspirated k in skit, which are allophones of the phoneme k.
Lau vs Nichols
a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court unanimously decided that the lack of supplemental language instruction in public school for students with limited English proficiency violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The court held that since non-English speakers were denied a meaningful education, the disparate impact caused by the school policy violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the school district was demanded to provide students with "appropriate relief".
Pyler vs Doe
a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down a state statute denying funding for education to illegal immigrant children and simultaneously struck down a municipal school district's attempt to charge illegal immigrants an annual $1,000 tuition fee for each illegal alien student to compensate for the lost state funding.
The Court found that where states limit the rights afforded to people (specifically children) based on their status as immigrants, this limitation must be examined under an intermediate scrutiny standard to determine whether it furthers a "substantial" state interest
No Child Left Behind act (NCLB)
Level of words
Meaning (can refer to simple understanding of what a word means, its synonym and antonyms and even metaphorical and nuanced meanings of words)
Words related through the same origin
Sentence structure, grammar
Use a language in social context
a specialized vocabulary used in a particular field or place
a method of representing the sounds of a language by written or printed symbols
(Ex.) I want a taco
Linguistic interference from native language
Phonological / syntactical / semantic
the study of speech sounds in language
a version of a language that is spoken in a specific area
Language variety which is determined according to its communicative functions.
(Ex. Social vs Academic language)
Biologically programmed to learn
Intelligence, learning and memory as a function of age
Interactionist / Constructivist
Construction of knowledge and language through interaction with support meant to help the student build on his/her own linguistic knowledge
Acquisition vs Learning
Informal vs Formal
Subconscious process vs Classroom instruction
The input hypothesis - Krashen
ESL students acquire language by comprehending what is being said
- slow rate of speech
The affective filter hypothesis - Krashen
There are affective elements that seem to affect the acquisition of language
- good self-image
- interest and motivation
(You want to lower it)
The monitor hypothesis - Krashen
Those who are acquiring language begin a process of monitoring their language through conscious corrections.
Errors and error correction are both signs of developmental processes (growth).
The silent period - Krashen
Students should be allowed to build up linguistic competence by active listening via the comprehensive input
Language Proficiency Assessment Committee
Each school will form a committee.
Each Committee should include a campus administrator, ESL teacher and a parent of a LEP student.
20 + same language, same grade, same district
- what language spoken at home?
- what language the student speaks most of the time?
Types of programs for ESL
(From less effective it more effective)
Self-contained/content based/English plus
Newcomer programs/sheltered instruction
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