46 terms

Attractions and Close Relationships

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Evolutionary social psychology
An extension of evolutionary psychology that views complex social behaviour as adaptive, helping the individual, kin and the species as a whole to survive.
Averageness effect
Humans have evolved to prefer average and symmetrical faces to those with unusual or distinctive features.
Proximity
The factor of living close by is known to play an important role in the early stages of forming a friendship.
Familiarity
As we become more familiar with a stimulus (even another person), we feel more comfortable with it and we like it more.
Similarity of attitudes
One of the most important positive, psychological determinants of attraction.
Assortative mating
A non-random coupling of individuals based on their resemblance to each other on one or more characteristics.
Reinforcement-affect model
Model of attraction which postulates that we like people who are around when we experience a positive feeling (which itself is reinforcing).
Social exchange
People often use a form of everyday economics when they weigh up costs and rewards before deciding what to do.
Behaviourism
An emphasis on explaining observable behaviour in terms of reinforcement schedules.
Cost-reward ratio
Tenet of social exchange theory, according to which liking for another is determined by calculating what it will cost to be reinforced by that person.
Minimax strategy
In relating to others, we try to minimise the costs and maximise the rewards that accrue.
Profit
This flows from a relationship when the rewards that accrue from continued interaction exceed the costs.
Comparison level
A standard that develops over time, allowing us to judge whether a new relationship is profitable or not.
Equity theory
A special case of social exchange theory that defines a relationship as equitable when the ratio of inputs to outcomes are seen to be the same by both partners.
Distributive justice
The fairness of the outcome of a decision.
Procedural justice
The fairness of the procedures used to make a decision.
Need to affiliate
The urge to form connections and make contact with other people.
Social comparison
Comparing our behaviours and opinions with those of others in order to establish the correct or socially approved way of thinking and behaving
Hospitalism
A state of apathy and depression noted among institutionalised infants deprived of close comfort with a caregiver.
Attachment behaviour
The tendency of an infant to maintain close physical proximity with the mother or primary caregiver.
Attachment styles
Descriptions of the nature of people's close relationships, thought to be established in childhood.
Secure Attachment style
Trust in others; not worried about being abandoned; belief that one is worthy and liked; find it easy to be close to others; comfortable being dependent on others, and vice versa.
Avoidant Attachment style
Suppression of attachment needs; past attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed; uncomfortable when close to others; find it difficult to trust others or to depend on them; feel nervous when anyone gets close.
Anxious Attachment style
Concern that others will not reciprocate one's desire for intimacy; feel that a close partner does not really offer love, or may leave; want to merge with someone and this can scare people away.
Self-disclosure
The sharing of intimate information and feelings with another person
Emotion-in- relationships model
Close relationships provide a context that elicits strong emotions due to the increased probability of behaviour interrupting interpersonal expectations.
Love
A combination of emotions, cognitions and behaviours that can be involved in intimate relationships.
Three-factor theory of love
Hatfield and Walster distinguished three components of what we label 'love': a cultural concept of love, an appropriate person to love and emotional arousal.
Passion
roughly equivalent to sexual attraction
intimacy
refers to feelings of warmth, closeness and sharing
Consummate love
Sternberg argues that this is the ultimate form of love, involving passion, intimacy and commitment.
Personal dedication
positive attraction to a particular partner and relationship
Moral commitment
a sense of obligation, religious duty or social responsibility, controlled by a person's values and moral principles
Constraint commitment
factors that make it costly to leave a relationship,
such as lack of attractive alternatives, and various social, financial or legal investments in the relationship
Commitment
The desire or intention to continue an interpersonal relationship; our resolve to maintain the relationship, even in moments of crisis
Partner regulation
Strategy that encourages a partner to match an ideal standard of behaviour.
Relationship dissolution model
Duck's proposal of the sequence through which most long-term relationships proceed if they finally break down.
cognitive dissonance theory
is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, performs an action that is contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas or values, or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values.
meta-analysis
examination of data from a number of independent studies of the same subject, in order to determine overall trends.
"an important component is the investigation of the consistency of treatment effects across studies"
Automatic Activation of Attitudes
"A person may experience the automatic activation of attitudes when he or she encounters a stimuli that triggers such an attitude - for example, if a person feels strongly about being allowed to smoke in a hospital and sees a no smoking sign there, this may trigger the attitude."
stimulus value
1. The strength of a stimulus. 2. The theoretical feature of a stimulus that will index itself as a reinforcer.
Affect
is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion
Attitude
in social psychology, a cognition, often with some degree of aversion or attraction, that reflects the classification and evaluation of objects and events.
idiosyncratic person
is someone who does things in his own way;
1.a characteristic, habit, mannerism, etc., that is peculiar to or distinctive of an individual. 2. the physical or mental constitution peculiar to an individual. 3. a peculiarity of the physical or mental constitution
equality
the state of being being the same for all, especially in status, rights, and opportunities.
affiliation need
to be with others, is powerful and pervasive, and underlies the way in which we form positive and lasting interpersonal relationships
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