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The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health.
There are no complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a complete protein.
The body is considered to be in nitrogen balance when the amount of nitrogen ingested in lipids equals the amount excreted in urine.
The amount of protein needed by each person is determined by the age, size, and metabolic rate of the person.
It would not be healthy to eliminate all fats from your diet because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body.
Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?
conversion to a nucleic acid
Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________.
is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.
most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________.
production of energy
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
The amino acid pool is the body's total supply of amino acids in the body's proteins.
Select the correct statement about proteins.
Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?
eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish
Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?
Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.
The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.
Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?
must contain all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth
Minerals required by the body in moderate amounts include all but which of the following?
iron and selenium
Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?
glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.
larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.
breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.
break down food molecules and generate ATP
What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work?
involves the removal of hydrogen electrons and CO2 from the substrate molecule
electron transport chain :
involves the use of oxygen to pick up excess hydrogen and electrons
The term metabolism is best defined as ________.
the sum of biochemical reactions involved in building breaking down molecules
Glycogenesis begins when ATP levels are high, and glucose entering cells is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate and converted to its isomer, glucose-1-phosphate.
All athletes require diets high in protein and calories in order to perform and to maintain their muscle mass.
Carbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carbohydrate intermediate before being sent through cellular respiration pathways.
The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.
Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________.
transferred to a keto acid
Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.
conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state.
When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________.
Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________.
excessive amounts of protein in the diet
Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?
In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose.
Which food type is considered to be the most important for athletes to eat to improve performance?
Which of the following is correct? Part A
Each FADH2 yields about 1 1/2 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.
The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.
Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?
Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.
As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.
Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state?
absorption of glucose from the GI tract
When blood glucose levels are low, the body begins to use more noncarbohydrate fuels for energy production. This process is called glucose activation.
Hank, a 17-year-old high school student, suffered a heart attack during a recreational swim. An autopsy revealed that he had had atherosclerosis and that his death had been caused by coronary artery disease. What might have been the cause of this disease that usually strikes a person much older than Hank?
He suffered from familial hypercholesterolemia.
Which of the following is not a function of LDLs?
transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver
Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center?
release of epinephrine
Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?
the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body
When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may ________.
Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body?
protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation
The term basal metabolic rate reflects the ________.
energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities
The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.
The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________.
muscle mass and metabolism decline with age
Select the correct sequence of steps as energy is extracted from glucose during cellular respiration.
glycolysis → acetyl CoA → citric acid cycle → electron transport chain
What is the correct general equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP energy
In what organelle would you find acetyl CoA formation, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain?
Which statement describes glycolysis?
This process splits glucose in half and produces 2 ATPs for each glucose.
Which statement describes the citric acid cycle?
This process produces some ATP and carbon dioxide in the mitochondrion.
Which statement describes the electron transport chain?
This process uses energy captured from electrons flowing to oxygen to produce most of the ATPs in cellular respiration.
Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH2 to O2 (molecular oxygen) by a series of electron carriers. Where does oxidative phosphorylation take place in human cells?
Which statement best describes the function of ATP synthase?
ATP synthase utilizes energy of the proton gradient to attach phosphate groups to ADP.
__________ is a substance in food used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.
Which of the following is represented by the "membrane" indicated in the figure?
inner mitochondrial membrane
Which of the following molecules is most directly involved in the transfer of "energy from food" to the "proton pumps" depicted in this figure?
Which of the following is a common feature of the processes indicated by both letters D and E?
movement of hydrogen atoms associated with NADH
Which of the following is following is a true statement regarding the reactions indicated by the letters F and G?
Both reactions F and G involve the transfer of a phosphate group from an organic substrate to ADP.
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