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AP Environmental Science Fall Final
Terms in this set (100)
annual market value of everything within a country.
per capita GDP
measures the changes in country's economic growth; divides GDP by total population at mid-year.
low to moderate industrialization, more people, more population growth Africa, parts of Asia, Latin America, 97% of future population growth will occur here
high GDP,high industrialized
more wealth, resource use, exploitation, waste, and pollution.
the amount of time it takes to double the world's population or economic growth at various exponential rates.
amount of how much you can use of something without depleting its supply; it allows us to use resources without exploiting them.
law of conservation of matter
when a physical of chemical change occurs, no atoms are created or destroyed. Environmentally, we will always have the problem of dealing with wastes and pollution even when we recycle or reuse some materials and chemicals.
first law of thermodynamics
in a physical or chemical change, we can change energy from one form to another, but we can never create or destroy any of the energy involved.
second law of thermodynamics
whenever energy changes from one form to another, we always end up with less usable energy than we started with.
low quality energy
dispersed, little capacity to do work. Ex: heat stored in cean
high quality energy
highly concentrated, high capacity to do work. Ex: energy released by burning coal, gasoline
describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth
cycling of nutrients (through biosphere)
fixed supply of nutrients must be continually recycled to support life.
nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems. Bacteria in soil play important role to convert into a usable form.
when some individuals in a species have genetically based traits that increase their chance of survival.
any heritable trait that an organism adopts through natural selection that increases its chances of survival; a species adapts through natural selection when there is a change that forces them to do so.
species role in a community that includes everything affecting its survival and reproduction.
broad niche, eat many foods, live in many places, etc.
narrow niche, live in only one habitat, eat only one food, etc.
a species that is highly specialized to exist in only one place.
an upward movement of ocean water; brings cool, nutrient filled water to the top of the surface to support phytoplankton, etc.
an area's temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and other physical conditions of the lower atmosphere over hours or days.
a region's general pattern of atmospheric or weather conditions over a long time - years, decades, or months.
uneven heating of earth's surface by sun
hit stronger at equator because the sun hits at a direct angle, opposed to the slanted angle at the poles.
rotation of earth on its axis
the earth rotates faster around the equator, causing heated air masses to rise above the equator and be deflected over the west or east.
properties of air, water, and land
ocean water is carried over the atmosphere and releases heat near the equator which creates a cyclical convection that circulates air, heat, and moisture.
cold forests, winters are long, and cold, coniferous trees are dominant; found in Northern Hemisphere
Low precipitation, plants and animals adapted for lack of water, soil is fragile
Chaparral, Temperate Shrubland
low growing evergreen shrubs, small trees, wet winters, long dry summers, prone to fires
thick spongy mat of low-growing plants, permafrost, very cold temperatures
found near the equator where hot, moisture-laden air rises and dumps its moisture. These forests have year-round uniformly warm temperatures, high humidity, and heavy rainfall almost year-round.
Freshwater Lake zones
littoral, limnetic, profundal, benthic
ecological benefits of coral reefs
moderate atmospheric temperature, protect coastlines from erosion, provide habitats, area of great productivity
must obtain nutrients by feeding on other organisms, primary - herbivores, secondary, carnivores, third and higher level, etc
release nutrients from dead organisms
algae, support most aquatic food chains.
Ecological Tipping Point
Point at which an environmental problem reaches a threshold level, which causes an often irreversible shift in the behavior of a natural system.
are either primary consumers feeding on phytoplankton or secondary consumers feeding on other zooplankton.
swimming consumers such as fish, whales, turtles, etc.
bottom dwellers such as barnacles and oysters.
key factors of distributing organisms into layers
temperature, access to sunlight, dissolved oxygen content, available nutrients.
partially enclosed area where rivers meet the sea.
brightly lit, phytoplankton engage in photosynthesis here, low nutrient levels, high D.O. levels, large fast-swimming predatory fish.
dimly lit, does not contain photosynthezing producers, zooplankton and smaller fish.
dark and cold, little D.O., contains enough nutrients, bottom feeders.
preservation, enhancement, restoration or creation (PERC) of a wetland, stream, or habitat conservation area which offsets, or compensates for, expected adverse impacts to similar nearby ecosystems.
deep, clear, relatively low productivity due to the low nutrient content in the lake
shallow and have murky water and mucky, soft bottoms, high levels of biological productivity
precipitation that does not sink into the ground or evaporate.
surface water that flows into streams.
depletion of the population of a wild species used as a resource to a level at which it is no longer profitable to harvest the species.
ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, inhibits shell growth in animals
the process where a substance such as a pollutant or pesticide increases its concentration in the tissues of organisms as it travels up the food chain
substances such as a pollutant become concentrated inside the bodies of living things.
species richness plus species evenness
the number of different species in a niche contains
abundance of individuals within a species
species that normally live and thrive in a particular community
nonnative species or invasive species
species that migrate or are forced to a new community. Ex: zebra mussels in Great Lakes
species that serve as early warning signs of damage to a community or ecosystem.
Explains how seemingly similar species can coexist in the same ecological community without one pushing the others to extinction through competition; divides up resources
evolution involving successive changes in two or more ecologically interdependent species (as of a plant and its pollinators) that affect their interactions
a member of one species feeds directly on all or part of a living organism as part of a food web.
one species gains sustenance from another species, such as the brown hear and a salmon.
A factor whose effects on the size or growth of population vary with the population density, typically involve biotic factors, such as the availability of food, parasitism, predation, disease, and migration.
Any factor limiting the size of a population whose effect is not dependent on the number of individuals in the population. An example is an earthquake, which will kill all members of the population regardless of whether the population is small or large.
benefits one species and has no effect on the other.
birth, death, immigration, emigration
the four variables that govern changes in population size.
(birth + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)
the equation that calculates population change.
population age structure
proportions of individuals at different ages
not mature enough to reproduce.
those capable of reproduction.
those too old to reproduce.
rate at which a population would grow with unlimited resources.
all factors that act to limit the growth of a population.
how long a species can grow before it reaches its maximum availability of resources; determined by biotic potential and environmental resistance.
starts slowly but then accelerates as the population increases because the base size of the population is increasing.
rapid exponential population growth followed by a steady decrease in population growth with time until the population size levels off.
occurs when a population uses all their resources and exceeds the carrying capacity of their environment due to reproductive lag.
agriculture, technology, death rates have dropped
three major factors of the rapid rise in human population
cultural carrying capacity
the maximum number of people who could live in reasonable freedom and comfort indefinitely, without decreasing the ability of the earth to sustain further generations.
total fertility rate
the number of children who would be born per woman (or per 1,000 women) if she/they were to pass through the childbearing years bearing children according to a current schedule of age-specific fertility rates.
stage one, preindustrial
population grows very slowly because of a high birth rate (to compensate for high infant mortality) and a high death rate.
stage two, transitional
population grows rapidly because birth rates are high and death rates drop because of improved production and health.
stage three, industrial
population growth slows as both birth and death rates drop because of improved food production, health, and education.
Primary Ecological Succession
Occurs in essentially lifeless areas—regions in which the soil is incapable of sustaining life as a result of such factors as lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or rocks left from a retreating glacier.
Secondary Ecological Succession
Occurs after a major disturbance, such as a fire or a flood.
practice of allowing more animals to feed on a given piece of land for a longer time than it is able to support. Can alter the kinds of plants able to grow in a certain area, leaving bare compacted ground causing erosion and reduces soil's ability to retain water.
forest fire that spreads along treetops (Canopy), often at great speeds.
most practical way to reduce dangerous accumulation of combustible fuels. Wildfires that burn in areas where fuels have been reduced by prescribed fire cause less damage and are much easier to control.
forest fire that burns only surface litter and undergrowth.
intermediate-aged or mature trees in an uneven-aged forest are cut singly or in small groups. Reduces crowding, removes diseased trees, encourages growth of younger trees.
method of timber harvesting in which all trees in a forested area have been removed in a single cutting.
variation of clear-cutting in which a strip of trees is clear-cut along the contour of the land, with the corridor being narrow enough to allow natural regeneration within a few years.
site where one or a few tree species are grown, uniformly aged
still abundant in natural range but is likely to become endangered soon.
deforestation, destruction of coral reefs and estuaries, pollution, roads, logging, agricultural and urban development.
no competitors or parasites, can demolish other species. Ex:
1975 convention on international trade in endangered species
US Endangered Species Act
conservation of species that are endangered or threatened throughout all or a significant portion of their range, and the conservation of the ecosystems on which they depend,
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