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AP Human Geography Unit 3 Vocabulary Flash Cards Daniel Ellis Period 4 Lake Howell High School Mr. Rodriguez Seminole County Public Schools


the mental faculty or power of vocal communication


the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people

Language Family

A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.

Language Subfamily

a smaller group of related languages within a language family

Language Group

A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.


A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate

Preliterate Society

Societies with out a written language

Standard Language

The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.

Indo-European Languages

Languages influenced by Indian language.

Language convergence

collapsing of two language into one.

Language divergence

new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects

Language replacement

Replacing a language

Sound Shifts

The diversification of languages

Deep reconstruction

process by which an extinct language is recreated

Proto Indo-European

The product of an Indo-European language or dialect.


hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.


family of indigenous American languages. Second oldest & largest family. Less widely diffused.


any of the languages spoken by Amerindians


concentrated along arctic and near-Arctic shore.

Agriculture Theory

with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe

Conquest Theory

theory of how proto-inko european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback


the branch of lexicology that studies the place names of a region or a language

Official Language

The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.

Monolingual States

countries in which only one language is spoken

Multilingual States

a state that uses many languages

Lingual Franca

two different speaking language people find a common language to communicate


an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages


a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages


an artificial language based as far as possible on words common to all the European languages


discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race


an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties

Plural Society

a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions

Ethnic Islands

small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.

Cultural Linkage

a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic or cultural group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity

Cultural Revival

process that works against globalization, revitalizing cultural ties and promoting distinction.

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