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AP Human Geography Unit 3 Vocabulary

AP Human Geography Unit 3 Vocabulary Flash Cards Daniel Ellis Period 4 Lake Howell High School Mr. Rodriguez Seminole County Public Schools
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Language
the mental faculty or power of vocal communication
Dialect
the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
Language Family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Language Subfamily
a smaller group of related languages within a language family
Language Group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Preliterate Society
Societies with out a written language
Standard Language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
Indo-European Languages
Languages influenced by Indian language.
Language convergence
collapsing of two language into one.
Language divergence
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
Language replacement
Replacing a language
Sound Shifts
The diversification of languages
Deep reconstruction
process by which an extinct language is recreated
Proto Indo-European
The product of an Indo-European language or dialect.
Nostratic
hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.
Na-Dene
family of indigenous American languages. Second oldest & largest family. Less widely diffused.
Amerind
any of the languages spoken by Amerindians
Eskimo-Aleut
concentrated along arctic and near-Arctic shore.
Agriculture Theory
with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe
Conquest Theory
theory of how proto-inko european spread into europe that speakers spread westward on horseback
Toponymy
the branch of lexicology that studies the place names of a region or a language
Official Language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Monolingual States
countries in which only one language is spoken
Multilingual States
a state that uses many languages
Lingual Franca
two different speaking language people find a common language to communicate
Pidgin
an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages
Creole
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
Esperanto
an artificial language based as far as possible on words common to all the European languages
Racism
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
Ethnicity
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
Plural Society
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
Ethnic Islands
small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.
Cultural Linkage
a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic or cultural group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity
Cultural Revival
process that works against globalization, revitalizing cultural ties and promoting distinction.