RSHW Englisch - Facts about the American Civil Rights Movement (Year 9 - 2018)
Terms in this set (76)
When did slavery officially end?
When did the Supreme Court rule that segregation in schools is unconstitutional?
On 17th May 1954.
What does NAACP stand for?
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
What was the NAACP?
An organisation which fought for black rights.
Who was Thurgood Marshall?
A NAACP attorney. Later in life he became the nation's first black Supreme Court Justice (judge).
Who was Emmett Till?
A 14-year-old boy from Chicago who was visiting family in Mississippi (in the South).
What happened to Emmett Till?
He was kidnapped, brutally beaten, shot and dumped in a river (the Tallahatchie River) by two white men.
Why was Emmett Till attacked?
He allegedly (angeblich) whistled at a white woman.
What happened to the two white men who attacked Emmett Till?
They were arrested for Till's murder but they were acquitted (freigesprochen) by an all-white jury (Geschworenen).
What did the two murderers of Emmett Till do after they were acquitted (freigesprochen) of the murder?
They went to 'Look' magazine and boasted (prahlen) about committing the murder.
When was Emmett Till murdered?
In August 1955.
Which case in 1955 became a cause célèbre (berühmter Rechtsstreit) of the American Civil Rights Movement?
Emmett Till's murder.
When did Rosa Parks refuse to give up her seat?
On 1st December 1955.
Where did black people sit in Alabama buses?
In the back.
What happened when a bus was full?
Black people were forced to give their seats to white people.
Where did Rosa Parks sit in the bus on 1st December 1955?
She sat in the middle because the seats at the back of the bus had filled up.
What did Rosa Parks do to get thrown in jail?
She refused (sich weigerte) to give up her seat at the front of the 'colored section' of a bus to a white passenger when the bus was full.
Who told Rosa Parks to give up her seat in the bus?
The bus driver.
What did the bus driver do when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat?
He stopped the bus and called the police.
What happened to Rosa Parks?
She was arrested (verhaftet) and fined $10.
What did the black community of Montgomery do as a response (Reaktion) to Rosa Parks' arrest?
They had a big meeting and decided to protest. They launched (in Gang gesetzt) a bus boycott, which would stand (bleiben) until the unjust law was changed. They also stopped shopping in the town center.
What happened as a result of the Montgomery bus boycott?
The bus company and the big shops in Montgomery started to lose money.
How long did the bus boycott go on for?
For 381 days (more than a year).
What did the Montgomery bus boycott achieve?
The law in Alabama was changed and segregation on buses was no longer legal.
Who led the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
Martin Luther King Jr.
What was Rosa Park's nickname?
The 'mother' of the American Civil Rights Movement.
Who was the 'mother' of the American Civil Rights Movement?
Where did Rosa Parks live?
In Montgomery, Alabama.
Where did the Little Rock Nine live?
In Little Rock, Arkansas.
What was the name of the school that the Little Rock Nine wanted to attend?
Little Rock Central High School (a formerly all-white school)
Why couldn't the Little Rock Nine go to school?
They were blocked from entering the school by angry (white) community members.
Who helped the Little Rock Nine?
How did President Eisenhower help the Little Rock Nine?
He sent federal troops (Bundessoldate) and the National Guard (Milizsoldate) to make sure they got inside the school without being harmed.
When did the Little Rock Nine get help from President Eisenhower?
In September 1957.
How many students were involved in the "lunch counter sit-in"?
Where did the "lunch counter sit-in" take place?
At a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina.
What is Woolworth's?
An American store where one can also eat at a lunch counter.
When did the "lunch counter sit-in" take place?
On 1st February 1960.
What happened to the four students at the sit-in at the Woolworth's lunch counter?
They were not served but they were allowed to stay at the counter.
What kind of a protest was the sit-in at the lunch counter?
A non-violent (peaceful) protest.
What happened as a result of the sit-in at the Woolworth's lunch counter?
Student sit-ins took place throughout the Deep South and they worked! Parks, swimming pools, theaters, libraries and other public facilities became integrated.
Who were the freedom riders?
Student volunteers who took bus trips through the South to test out new racial equality laws.
What happened to several groups of freedom riders?
They were attacked by angry mobs (e.g. Ku Klux Klan members).
How many freedom riders were there?
More than 1000 volunteers. They were both black and white.
In which town did police brutality against black demonstrators get filmed and then televised (im Fernsehen übertragen) all over the world?
In Birmingham, Alabama.
Why do people say that the Birmingham police were "brutal" against the black demonstrators?
They used fire hoses and police dogs.
When did police brutality against black demonstrators in Birmingham happen?
In May 1963.
What was Dr Martin Luther King Jr's profession?
He was a Baptist minister (a church pastor) before he became the leader of the American civil rights movement.
Was Dr Martin Luther King a doctor?
No! He got a PhD (Doktortitel) by studying at university.
Was Martin Luther King Jr a criminal?
Officially, yes. He was often arrested (verhaftet) and went to jail many times. But this was because he protested against unfair laws. He never hit anyone or stole anything. It's up to you to decide if he was a criminal!
When did Martin Luther King Jr. hold his famous speech?
On 28th August 1963 at the 'March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom'.
Where did Martin Luther King Jr. hold his famous speech?
In Washington, D.C. at the Lincoln Memorial.
What was the name of Martin Luther King Jr.'s famous speech?
I Have a Dream
How many people were at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom?
About 200 000.
Who was Malcolm X?
A popular but violent civil rights leader. He was a Black Nationalist and founder of the 'Organisation of Afro-American Unity'. His religion was firstly 'Black Muslim' and then 'Orthodox Islam'.
Was Malcolm X a peaceful or violent man?
Malcolm X believed that black people should fight for their civil rights in any way they could, even if they had to become violent.
What did Malcolm X believe?
He believed that all white people were bad. He believed in taking over "white society" and making the white people suffer. He believed that peaceful protests (e.g. lunch counter sit-ins, the Montgomery Bus Boycott) were weak (schwach) and didn't go far enough.
When was Malcolm X murdered?
On 21st February 1965.
How was Malcolm X murdered?
He was shot.
Where was Malcolm X murdered?
In Harlem, New York.
Where was the Black Panther Party founded?
In Oakland, California.
When was the Black Panther Party founded?
In October 1966.
When was Martin Luther King Jr. shot?
On 4th April 1968.
Where was Martin Luther King Jr. shot?
In Memphis, Tennessee. He was standing on the balcony outside his hotel room.
How old was Martin Luther King Jr. when he died?
He was 39 years old.
How did Martin Luther King Jr. die?
He was shot by James Earl Ray (a committed racist).
Who is James Earl Ray?
He shot Martin Luther King Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee, on 4th April 1968. He was an escaped convict (entkommener Straftling) and committed racist.
What crime happened outside a hotel room?
Martin Luther King Jr. was shot by James Earl Jones in Memphis, Tennessee, on 4th April 1968.
What is Martin Luther King Jr Day?
It's a national holiday in the US to remember Martin Luther King Jr.
When is Martin Luther King Jr Day?
Around his birthday (15th January). It's on the third Monday of January every year, which is always close to his birthday on 15th January.
When did the race riots in LA happen?
On 29th April 1992.
Where did the race riots of 1992 happen?
In Los Angeles, California.
Why did the race riots in LA happen?
A jury acquitted (freisprechen) four white police officers for the beating of black man, Rodney King, even though it was all filmed on videotape!
Who is Rodney King?
He was a black man who was beaten by four police officers in Los Angeles, California.
In which year did Rodney King get beaten by police officers in LA?
When did Barack Obama become the 44th President of the United States?
On 20th January 2009 (until 20th January 2017)