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PMA Q2 Review
Terms in this set (62)
The 3 phases of INTERPHASE in order
Gap 1, Synthesis, and Gap 2
This occurs during S phase of INTERPHASE
Replication of DNA and centromeres
The phases of MITOSIS in order
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
The phases of MEIOSIS
Prophase 1, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1, Telophase 1, Prophase 2, Metaphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2.
Remember PMAT Twice
The phase before MITOSIS and MEIOSIS where the cells are doing their normal function
The difference between telophase and cytokinesis
In TELOPHASE the daughter cells are still connected while in CYTOKINESIS the daughter cells are fully seperated
The advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction increases of genetic variation
Mitosis is classified as __________ reproduction?
Meiosis is classified as _________ reproduction?
Mitosis produces cells that are _____________ to the parent cell.
Mitosis results in ____ identical __________ cells
Meiosis results in _____ genetically variant __________ cells
Sex cells undergo _______.
Sex cells are also known as...
In the CELL CYCLE cells are in INTERPHASE _________ of the time.
The result of Mitosis
2 diploid cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell
The result of Meiosis
4 haploid sex cells that differ genetically from the parent cell.
What occurs during Prophase of Mitosis
1. nuclear envelope disappears
2. DNA condenses into chromosome form
3. Centromeres begin to move to opposite sides of the cell and extend spindle fibers
What occurs during Metaphase of Mitosis
the spindle fibers start to align the chromosomes in the middle of the cell
What occurs during Anaphase of Mitosis
spindle fibers start to pull apart the sister chromatids and move them to the opposite sides of the cell
What occurs during the Telophase of Mitosis
1. chromatids now arrive at their opposite ends of the cell 2. new nuclear envelope starts to form around the two daughter chromatids.
3. chromosomes start to disperse and become less visible.
What occurs during Prophase 1 of Meiosis
1. Nuclear envelope disappears
2. Chromosomes condense
3. Crossing over occurs
4. Homologous chromosomes pair up together
An image of Prophase
An image of Metaphase
An image of Anaphase
An image of Cytokineses
The 4 nucleotides that make up DNA
THYMINE, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine
The 4 nucleotides that make up RNA
URACIL, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine
A sequence of three base that translate into amino acid
The correct order of making a protein
DNA transcribed to RNA and RNA translated to proteins.
Compare DNA vs RNA
RNA: Single stranded, ribose sugars, Uracil instead Thymine
DNA: Double stranded, deoxyribose sugars, Thymine instead of Uracil
The enzyme in DNA replication aids in unzipping or unwinding the DNA strand so that they are now two separate pieces.
The enzyme in DNA replication that lays down PRIMER as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
The enzyme in DNA replication is responsible for replicating the new strand of DNA to each of the parent strands that were separated by Helicase
The sites in a cell in which protein synthesis takes place
The function of mRNA
carries the genetic information copied from DNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
The function of tRNA
Transports amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosome for translation.
The UNIVERSAL GENETIC CODE means that nearly all organism's...
RNA makes proteins in the same way.
The definition of semi-conservative DNA
two new DNA molecules, each containing one original and one newly synthesized strand of DNA
The order of the 3 enzymes used in DNA replication
Helicase, Primase, DNA polymerase, Ligase
An image of tRNA (transfer RNA)
Proteins are made up of this
DNA is made up of this monomer
DNA never leaves the...
mRNA can ______ the nucleus
Adenine pairs with this
Thymine or Uracil
Guanine pairs with this
The Universal Genetic Code codes for amino acids uses ________.
The _____ codes for amino acids uses mRNA codons.
Universal Genetic Code
You CANNOT use _____ or ______ on the universal genetic code.
Examples of non-mendalian traits include...
codominance, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles
A homozygous dominant parent crossed with a homozygous recessive parent will always result with
100% heterozygous offsprings
A cross between 2 heterozygous parents will always result in a _____ ratio.
3 to 1
3 or more alleles contributing to one trait is called?
Height is controlled by multiple genes. Height is an example of what inheritance pattern
To have type "o" blood, the genotype is
The genotype for blood type A
The genotype for blood type B
The genotype for blood type O
A chicken is spotted black and white. This is best described as what type of inheritance
If a flower is pink, and the parents were red and white, what inheritance is this
Why males more likely to exhibit sex-linked disorders than females
Most disorders are X-linked and males only have 1 "X" chromosome.
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