Biological Approach Vocabulary
Terms in this set (45)
a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, especially in conditions of stress, Responsible for arousal in fight or flight. Plays role in memory formation.
stress hormone released by the adrenal cortex, controls blood sugar, reduces inflammation, assists with memory formation
A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)
Hormone that acts as neurotransmitter in the brain, most notably the hypothalamus, that stimulates eating behavior and reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain
A hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary. It acts as neurotransmitter when it affects the brain. Roles: Mother-child attachment, social bonding and trust
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it. Facilitative role in aggression
a neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory (consolidates memory in hippocampus) and muscle movement
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,emotion, and mood.
A limbic system structure involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.
similar enough to bind to the site, cannot mimic function. blocks neurotransmitter site.
twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
chemicals released from the terminal buttons of a neuron that inhibit the next neuron from firing
The destruction of certain neurons to increase the processing speed of the nervous system
localization of function
specialization of particular brain areas for particular functions
A process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane.
structure located in the brainstem and part of the dopaminergic reward pathway; releases dopamine in response to many drugs contributing to addictive behavior
the ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma
a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, stimulates a response
Chemical signals released by an animal that communicate information and affect the behavior of other animals of the same species.
Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
When a neurotransmitter decreases the likelihood that the neuron will fire an action potential. It may also be when a drug attaches to a receptor site for a neurotransmitter and blocks the transmission across the synapse.
is the concept that in a correlational study, since no independent variable is manipulated, it is impossible to know if x causes y, y causes x, if they interact to cause behaviour, or whether it is just coincidental and no relationship truly exists.
research design in which several different age groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time, opposite of longitudinal
an experimental design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group until the results are calculated
research over a period of time using observations, interviews or psychometric testing. (Similar to a repeated measures design in an experiment).
Pooling data from multiple studies of the same research question to arrive at one combined answer.
a beneficial effect produced by a placebo drug or treatment, which cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment.
A study of an individual after an important change or development. For example, the study of a person after a stroke. This requires the research to "reconstruct" the life of the individual prior to the event.
Single blind testing
an experiment in which the researchers know which participants are receiving a treatment and which are not; however, the participants do not know which condition they are in.
Using multiple data sources, multiple researchers or multiple research methods in an investigation to reach a richer understanding of a behaviour or cognitive process.
indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
These types of neurotransmitters increase the likelihood that the neuron will fire an action potential. It is also when a drug attaches to a receptor site for a neuron and activates the neuron as if the neurotransmitter was sending a message.
(Pedigree studies) Scientific studies in which researchers assess hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble each other on a specific trait.
fight or flight response
a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harm or threat to survival. It is triggered by the sympathetic nervous system activation that innervates the adrenal medulla, producing a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of glucocorticoids. The animal is then reading for fighting or fleeing. This response is recognized as the first stage of Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome.
a complex set of interactions between two parts of the brain—the hypothalamus and the pituitary glands—and the adrenal glands that are located at the top of each kidney. This is the basis of the human stress response.
stress hormones that help with the metabolism of glucose. They are released during stress to assist with the "Fight or Flight" response.
a genetic variation (mutation) resulting in the occurrence of several different forms or types of individuals among the members of a single species
a limitation of adoption studies in which children are placed with families that are very similar to the original family.
suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
An underlying inherited susceptibility - that is, the theory that you may have genes that may make you more likely to have certain traits if those genes are exposed to the appropriate environmental stressors.
Localization of function in the brain
specific parts of the brain serve specific functions in the production of mental experience and behavior
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