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PHYSICS: ThermodynamicsAP, AP Physics 2 - Thermodynamics
Terms in this set (57)
Flow of energy in the universe, as the flow relates to work, heat, entropy, and the different forms of energy
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
Objects are in thermal equilibrium when they are at the same temperature, transitive property in thermal systems (a=b, b=c, a=c)
A physical property of matter that relates the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance
The transfer of thermal energy from a hotter object(higher temp/energy) to a colder object (lower temp/energy)
No heat flows between two objects in thermal contact
Fahrenheit to Celsius equation
Kelvin to Celsius equation
delta L= change in length
alpha= coefficient of linear expansion
L= original length
delta T= change in temperature
System not capable of exchanging energy or matter with their surrounding; total change in internal energy is zero
e.g. bomb calorimeter
System capable of exchanging energy, but not matter, with the surrounding
e.g. gas in vessels with movable pistons
Systems can exchange both matter and energy with the environment
e.g. Boiling pot of water
Thermodynamic properties that are a function of only the current equilibrium state of a system
e.g. pressure, density, temperature, volume, enthalpy, internal energy, Gibbs free energy, entropy
First law of thermodynamics
The change in the total internal energy of a system is equal to the amount of energy transferred in the form of heat to the system, minus the amount of energy transferred from the system in the form of work
First law of thermodynamics equation
delta U= internal energy
Second law of thermodynamics
In a closed system, energy will spontaneously and irreversibly go from being localized to being spread out
Three means by which heat can transfer energy
Conduction, Convection, Radiation
Direct transfer of energy from molecule to molecule through molecular collisions
e.g. metal pan to chicken, gases are poor conductors
Transfer of heat by the physical motion of a fluid over a material
e.g. Fans circulate hot air inside oven
Transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
e.g. Sun keeps earth warm
Specific heat (c) of a substance
The amount of heat energy required to raise one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius or one unit Kelvin
Heat gained or lost by an object
q= heat gained or lost by an object
c= specific heat of substance
delta T= change in temp
Heat of transformation
During a phase change, heat energy causes changes in PE and energy distribution, but not KE. No change in temp
Heat of transformation equation
q= amount of heat gained or lost from substance
L= heat of transformation
Specific heat for liquid H2O
4.184 J/g . K
Four special types of thermodynamic systems in which a given variable is held constant
Isothermal, Adiabatic, Isobaric, Isobaric, Isovolumetric
T is constant, change in internal energy= 0
No heat is exchanged
P is constant
Isovolumetric (isochoric) process
V is constant, work done on or by system = 0
Measure of how much energy has spread out or how spread out energy has become
Entropy and heat
delta S= change in entorpy
Q rev= heat gained or lost in reversible process
Entropy of universe
This total entropy of the universe is always increasing
the energy in a system arising from the relative positions and interactions of its parts.
lack of order or predictability; gradual decline into disorder. // a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system.
an ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons in proportions resulting in more or less no overall electric charge, typically at low pressures (as in the upper atmosphere and in fluorescent lamps) or at very high temperatures (as in stars and nuclear fusion reactors).
the process by which heat or electricity is directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature or of electrical potential between adjoining regions, without movement of the material.
the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in the transfer of heat.
the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization.
a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. It defines macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy, and pressure, that partly describe a body of matter or radiation.
a thermodynamic process during which the volume of the closed system undergoing such a process remains constant.
relating to or denoting a process or condition in which heat does not enter or leave the system concerned.
a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant
a device for producing motive power from heat, such as a gasoline engine or steam engine.
a form of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in any material.
most efficient heat engine, uses two isothermal and two adiabatic processes
an ideal reversible closed thermodynamic cycle; back to it's original state
the lowest temperature that is theoretically possible, at which the motion of particles that constitutes heat would be minimal.
the SI unit of amount of substance, equal to the quantity containing as many elementary units as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12.
a transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase
when an object goes from a gas straight to solid, without going through a liquid phase
the heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of a given substance by a given amount
the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water through 1 °C, equal to one thousand small calories and often used to measure the energy value of foods.
a hypothetical gas whose molecules occupy negligible space and have no interaction and that consequently obeys the gas laws exactly.
work done on a system
work done by system
latent heat (transformation, fusion, vaporization)
the heat required to convert a solid into a liquid or vapor, or a liquid into a vapor, without change of temperature
Recommended textbook explanations
Principles of Physics (International Edition)
David Halliday, Resnick, Walker
Giancoli Physics: Principles With Applications
Rachel Santopietro, R. Terrance Egolf
Principles & Practice of Physics (Volume 1)
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