Biology Fall Final 2
Terms in this set (142)
What is denature?
Breaking down proteins
What is a polar molecule?
A molecule with an uneven distribution of charge.
Why is water considered polar?
The oxygen is partially negative and the hydrogen is partially positive
What is activation energy?
Energy needed to start a reaction
What do enzymes do to chemical reactions?
It lowers the activation energy. Decreases activation energy and increases reaction rate.
What are most enzymes made of?
What are some factors that affect enzymes?
Temperature, pH, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration
What is an active site?
A region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.
What is a substrate?
The substance on which an enzyme acts
What is metabolism?
The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
What is anabolism? Is it dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis?
The building up of molecules. Dehydration synthesis
What is catabolism? Is it dehydration synthesis or hydrolysis?
The breaking down of molecules. Hydrolysis
What is dehydration synthesis?
The process of joining two molecules, or compounds, together following the removal of water
What is hydrolysis?
The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
What are phospholipids?
A lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
Which part of the phospholipid is polar/non-polar and hydrophilic/hydrophobic?
The head is polar and hydrophilic and the tail is non-polar and hydrophobic
What are the parts of the phospholipid?
Head has phosphate and glycerol and the tail is fatty acid
What is the importance of unsaturated fatty acids in a phospholipid layer?
They create a kink that prevents the fatty acids from packing together as tightly
What is a monomer?
What is a polymer?
Long chain of monomers
What are monosaccharides?
Simple sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose)
What are polysaccharides?
Complex sugars (cellulose, starch, and glycogen)
What is the order from weakest to strongest for ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds?
Hydrogen, ionic, and covalent
What are nucleotides made of?
Sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen base
What is the variable portion of the nucleotide?
What is a controlled experiment?
An experiment where only one variable is changed
What is the dependent variable?
Variable that is measured and observed. On the Y axis
What is the independent variable?
Variable that is manipulated. On the X axis
What is the control group?
The group that does not receive the experimental treatment in an experiment.
What are controlled variables?
Things you keep the same in an experiment
What is a solution?
Formed when one substance dissolves in another
What is a solvent?
Dissolves other substances. Ex. Water
What is a solute?
Dissolved in the solvent. Ex. Salt
What is homeostasis?
Maintaining a stable internal environment.
How is homeostasis maintained? Examples?
Negative feedback. Shivering or sweating
What is a prokaryote?
A cell without a nucleus or membrane bound organelles
What is a eukaryote?
A cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Why is the surface to volume ratio important in a cell?
If the volume gets too large compared to its surface area, it won't be able to function
What is cell transport?
Movement of materials across the cell membrane
What is passive transport?
Allows the cell to move materials across the cell membrane without using energy
What are the forms of passive transport?
Diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
What is diffusion?
The movement of materials from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water
What are the three terms to describe the amount of dissolved particles in the cell compared to the amount of water?
Isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic
What is isotonic?
The same concentration of dissolved materials (water moves in and out at an equal rate)
What is hypertonic?
Solution that has a higher concentration of dissolved materials (water moves out of the cell)
What is hypotonic?
Solution that has a lower concentration of dissolved materials (water moves into the cell)
What is facilitated diffusion?
Larger molecules can still diffuse through opening formed by transport proteins (still passive transport)
What is active transport?
The movement of materials that requires energy by the cell. (Low to high)
What is endocytosis?
The movement of liquids or large molecules into a cell by engulfing them into the membrane
What is exocytosis?
Materials are released out of the cell (opposite of endocytosis)
What is ATP?
What is ADP?
What are the three parts of ATP?
Adenosine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups
What is concentration gradient?
Difference in concentration
What is the Cell Theory?
All organisms are made of cells, all existing cells are produced by other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life
What is the Endosymbiotic Theory?
Explains how eukaryotic cells may have evolved from prokaryotic cells. Mitochondria and chloroplasts both have their own DNA and ribosomes
What are cell organelles?
Parts of a cell
What are lysosomes?
Suicide sacs, defend the cell from invading bacteria and viruses (not found in the plant cell)
What are mitochondria?
The cells powerhouse. Supply energy to the cell
What are chloroplasts?
Carries out photosynthesis
What are thylakoids?
Saclike photosynthetic membranes
What are grana?
Stacks of thylakoids
What are stroma?
Fluid that surrounds the grana
What is smooth ER?
No ribosomes. Makes lipids.
What is rough ER?
Studded with ribosomes. Makes proteins and lipids
What is cytoskeleton?
Supports and shapes the cell. Mostly made of proteins
What is cytoplasm?
Fluid inside the cell. Mostly made up of water
What is the large central vacuole?
Fluid filled storage sac
What are the organelles that plants have but animals don't?
Cell wall, large central vacuole, and chloroplasts
What is a vesicle?
A small, membrane bound compartment
What is the cell wall?
Found on the outside of plant cells, it is made of cellulose and strengthens the cell.
What is the cell membrane?
The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
What is the fluid mosaic model?
Describes the arrangement of molecules in the cell membrane.
What is the cell membrane made of?
Double layer of phospholipids
What is the lipid bilayer?
2 layers of phospholipids
What are protein channels?
Proteins that are embedded in the lipid bilayer that help things pass through the membrane
What is photosynthesis?
The process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food
What occurs in the light dependent reaction?
Sunlight and H20 go in and O2, ATP and NADPH are created. Overall function is to transform light energy into chemical potential energy. Takes place in thylakoid membrane
What occurs in the light independent reaction?
CO2, ATP, and NADPH go in and glucose is produced. Overall function is to transform chemical potential energy of ATP and NADPH into another form of chemical potential energy (glucose). Takes place in stroma
What are the three factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Water, sunlight, and temperature
What is the chemical equation of photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the chemical equation of cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ------> 6CO2 + 6H2O
What occurs in glycolysis?
Glucose goes in and pyruvic acid and 2 molecules of ATP are produced. Takes place in the cytoplasm
What occurs in the Krebs cycle?
Pyruvic acid goes in and CO2, NADH, and FADH2 are produced with 2 more molecules of ATP. Takes place in mitochondria
What occurs in the ETC?
O2 goes in and is broken down into H2O. FADH2 and NADH power this. H+ ions build up and eventually pass through ATP Synthase to produce 32 ATP.
What is pyruvate?
End product of glycolysis
What occurs if oxygen is not available for glycolysis?
What are the two types of fermentation?
Lactic acid and alcoholic
What is chlorophyll?
Green pigment found in chloroplast
What is a pigment?
What are the monomers and polymers of carbohydrates?
Monosaccharide and polysaccaride
What are the monomers and polymers of proteins?
Amino acids and proteins
What are the monomers and polymers of nucleic acid?
Nucleotide and nucleic acid (DNA and RNA)
What is the polymer of lipids?
Fats oils and waxes
What are the four types of organic compounds?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
What is chemosynthesis?
Used in deep sea regions where light doesn't reach. When organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
What is the Law of Conservation of Energy?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only change from one form to another
What is energy?
A property of objects which can be transformed to other objects or converted into different forms
What is kinetic energy?
Energy in motion
What is potential energy?
What is chromatin?
What is Chargaff's rule?
A=T and G=C
What is a diploid?
2 sets of chromosomes
What is a haploid?
One set of chromosomes
What are homologous chromosomes?
Two genetically similar chromosomes, one from each parent
What are autosomes?
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
What are sex chromosomes?
Chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism
What does XX mean?
What does XY mean?
What are somatic cells?
What are germ cells?
What is mitosis?
What is meiosis?
What are the cell cycle stages?
Gap 1, Synthesis, Gap 2, and Mitosis (Mitosis and Cytokinesis)
What occurs in Gap 1?
Cell increases in size, organelles increase in number, cell carries out normal functions
What occurs in Synthesis?
Cell makes a copy of its DNA. By the end of this stage the cell contains to complete sets of DNA
What occurs in Gap 2?
Additional growth and the cell goes through a critical checkpoint (making sure it is the right size and there is no undamaged DNA)
What occurs in Mitosis?
The division of the nucleus and its contents (Mitosis) and the cell's cytoplasm divides. Two identical cells are produced (Cytokinesis)
What are gametes?
Sex cells (sperm and egg)
What is a zygote?
What did Watson and Crick do?
They figured out the structure of DNA
What did Rosalind Franklin do?
Used X-ray crystallography and suggested the DNA helical shape
What hold the backbone and the rungs of the DNA together?
Backbone is held together by covalent bonds and rungs are held together by hydrogen bonds
What are the steps of DNA replication?
DNA unzips, bases pair up, backbone bonds, DNA is now duplicated
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
How many genes do humans have?
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes divide faster?
What is one of the main reasons that a cell divides?
The volume gets too large in comparison to its surface area
What are the four main stages of mitosis?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What happens in prophase?
DNA condenses into chromosomes. Centrioles move to the poles and spindle fibers form
What happens in metaphase?
Spindle fibers attach to each chromosomes. Chromosomes align along the cell's equator
What happens in anaphase?
Chromatids separate to opposite sides of the cell
What happens in telophase?
Nuclear membrane starts to form. Chromosomes begin to uncoil and spindle fibers fall apart
What happens in cytokinesis?
Division of the cytoplasm
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death
What are the two types of cancer?
Benign and malignant
What is uncontrolled cell growth?
What is asexual reproduction?
Offspring from one organism that is genetically identical
What is binary fission?
What part of the DNA molecule is in the backbone?
Sugar and phosphate molecules
Which phase is the longest in the cell cycle?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
DAT Survey of Natural Sciences | Kaplan Guide
Rice Test 10/4
Bio test 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
WordWright Words Honors Eng 2
AP Euro Chapters 12 and 14
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Honors BIO Final Vocabulary
Quizlet: Fall Final Exam
Morris Final Exam Semester 1 2019