A & P II Chapter 17
Terms in this set (158)
Functions of blood
What is transported in blood?
What variables does blood help maintain homeostasis for?
pH levels, blood levels, and body temp
How is blood protective?
prevents infection and blood loss
What type of tissue is blood?
What percentage is plasma?
55% of blood
What percentage is formed elements?
What % of blood would be RBC?
What % of a blood sample would be WBC and platelets?
less than 1%
What are formed elements?
all cells and elements that are made by the bone marrow
Where are all formed elements made?
What hematocrit a measure of?
What are normal values for hematocrit in males and females?
47% +_ 5% males
42% +_ 5% females
Why is male hematocrit higher?
b/c testosterone stimulates RBC formation
Would hematocrit increase or decrease in polycythemia?
Would hematocrit increase or decrease in anemia?
Plasma is mostly made of:
Name some substances dissolved in plasma
nutrients, gases, hormones, ions, and waste products
Where are all plasma proteins made?
Which plasma protein is the most common?
Which plasma protein is responsible for generating osmotic pressure?
Which plasma protein transports ions and vitamins?
globulins and albumins
Which plasma proteins are antibodies?
Which plasma proteins are involved with blood clotting?
What is the correct term for a RBC?
What is the correct term for a WBC?
What is the mnemonic to remember the names and frequency of the WBC?
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
Do RBC have a nucleus?
Are platelets whole cells or fragments of cells?
What is the meaning of the term hematopoiesis?
the generation of new BCs
Where does hematopoiesis take place?
red bone marrow
The major stem cell in red bone marrow that gives rise to all blood cells is:
When a hemocytoblast differentiates it can follow one of two pathways. Name the two progenitor cells for the pathways?
common myeloid and common lymphoid
Which cells come from the lymphoid progenitor?
lymphocytes and plasma cells
Which cells come from the myeloid progenitor?
myeloblast, mast cells, erythrocytes, and megakaryocytes
What is the differentiated stem cell that gives rise to basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages?
Name the differentiated stem cell that gives rise to platelets?
Why does a bone marrow transplant help people with blood cell cancers?
helps them to produce new not cancerous BCs
Describe what a RBC looks like?
biconcave discs without a nucleus
What is the term for the shape of the RBC?
Do RBC have a mitochondria?
Can a RBC repair itself if damaged?
Do RBC do aerobic or anaerobic respiration?
What protein are red blood cells full of?
The hemoglobin consists of 4 polypeptide chains called:
There are usually _____ alpha chains and ______ beta chains
Each globin chain has a __________ attached which holds the metal ion ___________.
The only place oxygen can bind to on the hemoglobin is the ___________.
How many oxygen can 1 hemoglobin bind?
Approx. how many hemoglobins are in a RBC?
What color does hemoglobin turn when it is oxygenated?
If oxygen is bound it is referred to as:
What color does hemoglobin turn when it is deoxygenated?
If no oxygen is bound, it is referred to as:
If there are 3 oxygens bound, how saturated is hemoglobin?
If there is 1 oxygen bound, how saturated is hemoglobin?
What would be the expected saturation of hemoglobin in the lungs?
If the PO2 is 40 mmHg, what is the saturation of hemoglobin? (Use graph in slides)
Where does CO2 bind on hemoglobin?
What is the term for hemoglobin which has CO2 bound?
If hemoglobin is carrying oxygen, will it bind CO2?
What is the most common variant of hemoglobin?
What globin chains are present in HbA1?
2 alpha and 2 beta
What globin chains are present in HbA2?
2 alpha and 2 delta
What globin chains are present in HbF?
2 alpha and 2 gamma chains
Why does the fetus need a different type of hemoglobin?
has more affinity for O2 than regular hemoglobin
How can hemoglobin be used as an index of blood sugar levels?
it combines with the hemoglobin in your blood so higher hemoglobin levels means a higher blood sugar level
What happens to cell size during erythropoiesis?
it gets smaller
What happens to cell color during erythropoiesis?
goes from purple to red
What happens to nucleus and organelles during erythropoiesis?
they are removed
What nutrients do you need for erythropoiesis?
iron, B12, intrinsic factor, folic acid(B9), vitamin C, Nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, thiamine, and amino acids
Why do you need iron in your diet?
to build hemoglobin
Which ion carrier carries iron in blood?
Which ion carrier binds and holds iron inside cells?
Why do you need intrinsic factor?
to absorb B12
Where is intrinsic factor produced? Know specific cell and location.
produced by parietal cells of the stomach lining
What is the function of Vitamin B12?
needed to make DNA
What is the condition that results from B12 deficiency?
Why do red blood cells have such a short life span?
they do not have nuclei so they cannot perform DNA repair
What hormone causes formation of new RBC in bone marrow?
Where is erythropoietin produced?
by the kidney
What is the stimulus for erythropoietin release?
when the blood oxygen levels drop
Where does erythropoietin work?
the red bone marrow
Would you expect a person on Mount Everest for 3 weeks to have more or less RBC than a person in Baltimore?
more RBCS due to the altitude diff.
Who would have more RBC, a normal individual or an anemic?
a normal individual
Where are damaged red blood cells broken down? Where is the RBC graveyard?
Name the large phagocyte in the spleen which removes damaged red blood cells from circulation?
What happens to the iron and the protein when a RBC is broken down?
recycled to be used again
What happens to the heme?
the heme is converted into bilirubin
What is the yellow colored breakdown product of heme?
Bilirubin is turned into Bile at the liver. What happens to the bile then?
it is excreted as urine or feces
Name the two pathways for bilirubin excretion.
urine or feces
Name some common causes of anemia?
blood loss, reduced RBC production, and increased rate of breakdown
Know the correct terminology for RBC that are:
Too small : microcytic
Normal size : normocytic
Too large : macrocytic
Too pale : hypo chromic
Normal color : normochromic
Too dark : hyper chromic
What has changed in thalassemia?
one of the globin chains is faulty are missing
What has changed in sickle cell anemia?
there is an incorrect amino acid in the beta chain of globin which causes misfolding
How does hydroxyurea help treat people with sickle cell disease?
switches the gene which makes fetal hemoglobin back on
The WBC are protective as they are a huge part of the ____________ system.
True or False: The body makes more RBC than WBC?
What is diapedesis?
The WBC move out of blood vessels to look for pathogens
What factors stimulate WBC formation in bone marrow?
colony stimulating factors(CSF)
Can WBC copy when in other tissues by cell cycle and mitosis?
What does it mean if a cell is a phagocyte?
eat and destroy dead or damaged cells or viruses
Which WBC have phagocytic functions?
Which one type of WBC has no phagocytic function?
What is the most common WBC in a blood sample?
What is the least common WBC in a blood sample?
List the granulocytes.
List the agranulocytes
What will you look for to recognize a neutrophil?
have many lobe nucleus
How do the granules stain in neutrophils?
pale red and blue
What will you look for to recognize an eosinophil?
two lobed nucleus
How do the granules stain in eosinophils?
large pink staining granules
When do eosinophil numbers increase? When infected with:
What will you look for to recognize a basophil?
purple black granules
How do the granules stain in basophils?
purple black granules
What chemical is inside the basophil granules
What are the functions of histamine?
causes redness and swelling
How will you recognize a lymphocyte?
the nucleus is almost the entire cell
What are the two types of lymphocytes?
Which lymphocyte attacks pathogens directly?
Which lymphocytes make antibodies?
How will you recognize a monocyte?
biggest of all cells and have a kidney shaped nucleus
What are monocytes called when they leave blood vessels and move into tissues?
What is the main function of macrophages?
What is the name cancer which results in overproduction of malfunctioning WBC?
What is the name of the infectious disease caused by the Epstein Barr virus?
Are granulocytes or agranulocytes affected by mono?
Excessive numbers of deformed agranulocytes
What is another name for platelets?
Are platelets whole cells or cell fragments?
What is the function of platelets?
used for blood clotting
Where are platelets made?
in bone marrow
Which committed stem cell breaks apart to form platelets?
Which hormone regulates platelet formation?
The lining tissue in a blood vessel is called the:
Will a clot form if the endothelium is not damaged?
What do platelets look like when they are inactive?
What do platelets look like when they are activated?
List the 3 steps of hemostasis in order.
1. Vascular spasm
2. Platelet plug formation
Why does it make sense for the blood vessel to constrict if it is punctured?
To keep other RBCs from leaking out of the hole
If the blood vessel is damaged the connective tissue protein ____________ is exposed.
The first platelet sticks to the collagen and is held in place by _____________________ factor.
Once the platelet sticks, it releases the granules inside it. The granules contain the chemical ____________ which can activate other platelets.
The platelets activate each other using ______________ feedback.
The platelets are held together by the protein ____________ and form a platelet plug.
Where are all clotting factors made?
Which vitamin is required to make 4 of the clotting factors?
Inactivated clotting factors and the protein fibrinogen are all floating in the _______________ of normal blood.
What starts the extrinsic clotting pathway?
What starts the intrinsic clotting pathway?
Which is faster extrinsic or intrinsic?
Chemicals released from damaged tissues which stimulate extrinsic coagulation are called _____________ factors.
What ion is necessary for clotting?
What enzyme turns pro-thrombin into thrombin?
activated factor V
What enzyme turns fibrinogen into fibrin?
What two contractile proteins are present in platelets? Why are they needed
actin and myosin
What is an agglutinogen? Antigen or antibody?
What are agglutinins? Antigen or antibody?