Comprehensive Final Exam
Terms in this set (109)
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
SI unit for temperature
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
always in form of a question; the question we are trying to answer by doing the experiment
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
something that stays the same
factors that can change in an experiment
a variable (often denoted by x ) whose variation does not depend on that of another. Manipulated.
a variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another. Measured.
A summary based on evidence or facts
a rule that describes a pattern in nature
Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis
Circle Graph (Pie Graph)
Shows parts of a whole or percentages
a graph that uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or space
A graph that uses horizontal or vertical bars to display data
International System of Units (SI)
An international system of units of measurement consisting of seven base units. Based on multiples of ten.
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. Newton's First Law.
the amount of matter in an object
The length of a path between two points
Distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point.
total distance/total time
the speed of an object at one instant of time
The combination of all forces acting on an object
Equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions
forces acting on an object that combine and form a net force that is not zero
Speed in a given direction
the rate at which velocity changes over time; an object accelerates if its speed, direction, or both change
A push or a pull
Speed that does not change over a period of time
a measure, quantity, or frequency, typically one measured against some other quantity or measure.
A graph with distance on the vertical axis and time on the horizontal axis
Newton's Second Law
Newton's Third Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Law of Gravitation
states that any two masses exert an attractive force on each other, the amount of which depends on the mass of the two objects and the distance between them
mass x velocity
A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact
a physical quantity that has magnitude but no direction
A quantity that has magnitude and direction
the ability to do work; the ability to make things move or change
the energy an object has due to its motion
stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object
the potential energy of an object that is stretched or compressed
Law of Conservation of Energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
gravitational potential energy
Energy stored by objects due to their position above Earth's surface. GPE = mgh
the amount of work an object can do because of the object's kinetic and potential energies
the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of pure water 1°C
chemical potential energy
the energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance
A unit of work equal to one newton-meter
A material that does not allow heat or electrons to move through it easily.
Energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles.
The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching.
A measure of how hot or cold something is.
device used in an active solar heating system that absorbs radiant energy from the Sun.
The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance
a device that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy
second law of themodynamics
states that is impossible for heat to flow from a cool object to a warmer object unless work is done
Thermal energy that is transferred from matter at a higher temperature to matter at a lower temperature
a device that uses work to transfer thermal energy from a colder area to a warmer area
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celcius
related to the force that causes electric charges to flow; measured in volts
A circuit that contains more than one path for current flow.
A material's opposition to the flow of electric current.
A metal rod on a building connected to a grounding wire; meant to protect a building from lightning damage
a path for an electrical current to flow around
A buildup of charges on an object.
an electric cell in which the electrolyte is absorbed in a solid to form a paste, preventing spillage.
A material that allows heat and electricity to pass through it.
a field of force surrounding a charged particle
the rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy
a unit of energy equal to the work done by a power of 1000 watts operating for one hour
the rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy
Material through which a wave travels (i.e.
A wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels
a wave in which matter moves back and forth in the direction the wave is moving, longitudinal
a longitudinal wave consisting of compressions and rarefactions, which travels through a medium
The bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening
a part in a longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart
Horizontal distance between the crests or between the troughs of two adjacent waves
The number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time
Unit of measurement for frequency
Velocity of a wave equation
v= f x wavelength
The bouncing back of a wave when it hits a surface through which it cannot pass.
the combination of two or more waves that results in a single wave
a wave that appears to stand in one place, even though it is really two waves interfering as they pass through each other
Center of an atom
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
Basic unit of matter
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
number of protons, identifies element
Number of protons and neutrons
Periodic Table of Elements
A table that classifies elements by their physical and chemical properties; rows are called periods; columns are called groups;
A column on the periodic table
Lewis Dot Diagram
A method for representing an atom's valence electrons using dots around the element symbol.
A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
Created the periodic table
A charged atom
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
model of the atom in which electrons move rapidly around the nucleus in paths called orbits
Positive or negative number that indicates how many electrons an atom has gained, lost, or shared to become stable
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
Electron Cloud Model
the modern model of the atom, in which electrons exist and spread throughout an area around the nucleus called a "cloud."
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