109 terms

Comprehensive Final Exam

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experiment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
Kelvin
SI unit for temperature
Hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
problem
always in form of a question; the question we are trying to answer by doing the experiment
control group
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
constant
something that stays the same
Variables
factors that can change in an experiment
independent variable
a variable (often denoted by x ) whose variation does not depend on that of another. Manipulated.
dependent variable
a variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another. Measured.
Conclusion
A summary based on evidence or facts
scientific law
a rule that describes a pattern in nature
Data
Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis
Density
mass/volume
Circle Graph (Pie Graph)
Shows parts of a whole or percentages
line graph
a graph that uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or space
bar graph
A graph that uses horizontal or vertical bars to display data
International System of Units (SI)
An international system of units of measurement consisting of seven base units. Based on multiples of ten.
Inertia
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion. Newton's First Law.
Mass
the amount of matter in an object
distance
The length of a path between two points
Displacement
Distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point.
Speed
distance/time
average speed
total distance/total time
instantaneous speed
the speed of an object at one instant of time
net force
The combination of all forces acting on an object
balance forces
Equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions
unbalanced forces
forces acting on an object that combine and form a net force that is not zero
Velocity
Speed in a given direction
Acceleration
the rate at which velocity changes over time; an object accelerates if its speed, direction, or both change
Force
A push or a pull
constant speed
Speed that does not change over a period of time
rate
a measure, quantity, or frequency, typically one measured against some other quantity or measure.
distance-time graph
A graph with distance on the vertical axis and time on the horizontal axis
Newton's Second Law
F=ma
Newton's Third Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Law of Gravitation
states that any two masses exert an attractive force on each other, the amount of which depends on the mass of the two objects and the distance between them
Momentum
mass x velocity
Friction
A force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact
Scalar
a physical quantity that has magnitude but no direction
Vector
A quantity that has magnitude and direction
Energy
the ability to do work; the ability to make things move or change
kinetic energy
the energy an object has due to its motion
potential energy
stored energy that results from the position or shape of an object
Elastic Energy
the potential energy of an object that is stretched or compressed
Law of Conservation of Energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
gravitational potential energy
Energy stored by objects due to their position above Earth's surface. GPE = mgh
mechanical energy
the amount of work an object can do because of the object's kinetic and potential energies
calorie (cal)
the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of pure water 1°C
chemical potential energy
the energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance
Joule
A unit of work equal to one newton-meter
Insulator
A material that does not allow heat or electrons to move through it easily.
Radiation
Energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles.
Convection
The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
Conduction
The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching.
Temperature
A measure of how hot or cold something is.
solar collector
device used in an active solar heating system that absorbs radiant energy from the Sun.
thermal energy
The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance
heat engine
a device that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy
second law of themodynamics
states that is impossible for heat to flow from a cool object to a warmer object unless work is done
heat
Thermal energy that is transferred from matter at a higher temperature to matter at a lower temperature
heat pump
a device that uses work to transfer thermal energy from a colder area to a warmer area
specific heat
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celcius
wet cell
car battery
voltage difference
related to the force that causes electric charges to flow; measured in volts
parallel circuit
A circuit that contains more than one path for current flow.
Resistance
A material's opposition to the flow of electric current.
lightning rod
A metal rod on a building connected to a grounding wire; meant to protect a building from lightning damage
circuit
a path for an electrical current to flow around
static electricity
A buildup of charges on an object.
dry cell
an electric cell in which the electrolyte is absorbed in a solid to form a paste, preventing spillage.
Ohm's Law
V=IR
conductor
A material that allows heat and electricity to pass through it.
electric field
a field of force surrounding a charged particle
electric power
the rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy
Kilowatt-hour
a unit of energy equal to the work done by a power of 1000 watts operating for one hour
electric power
the rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of energy
medium
Material through which a wave travels (i.e.
transverse wave
A wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels
compressional wave
a wave in which matter moves back and forth in the direction the wave is moving, longitudinal
sound waves
a longitudinal wave consisting of compressions and rarefactions, which travels through a medium
Diffraction
The bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening
Rarefaction
a part in a longitudinal wave where the particles are spread apart
Wavelength
Horizontal distance between the crests or between the troughs of two adjacent waves
Frenquency
The number of complete waves that pass a given point in a certain amount of time
Hertz (Hz)
Unit of measurement for frequency
Velocity of a wave equation
v= f x wavelength
Reflection
The bouncing back of a wave when it hits a surface through which it cannot pass.
Interference
the combination of two or more waves that results in a single wave
standing wave
a wave that appears to stand in one place, even though it is really two waves interfering as they pass through each other
Nucleus
Center of an atom
Electron
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
Atom
Basic unit of matter
Proton
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
Neutron
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
number of protons, identifies element
atomic mass
Number of protons and neutrons
Periodic Table of Elements
A table that classifies elements by their physical and chemical properties; rows are called periods; columns are called groups;
Group
A column on the periodic table
Lewis Dot Diagram
A method for representing an atom's valence electrons using dots around the element symbol.
period
A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev
Created the periodic table
Ion
A charged atom
covalent bond
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Bohr Model
model of the atom in which electrons move rapidly around the nucleus in paths called orbits
oxidation number
Positive or negative number that indicates how many electrons an atom has gained, lost, or shared to become stable
ionic bond
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
chemical formula
A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
neutral
no charge
Electron Cloud Model
the modern model of the atom, in which electrons exist and spread throughout an area around the nucleus called a "cloud."