All the different populations that live together in an area
An organism that makes its own food
A diagram that shows the biomass of organisms at each trophic level
A consumer that eats only plants.
Each step in a food chain or food web
A group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy. C02+H20-light-> 02+C6H1206
the first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms
a scavenger, such as an earthworm, that feeds on dead plant and animal matter
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
process by which bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas
An animal that eats both plants and animals
total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
process in which chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates
An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
A consumer that eats only animals.
process of converting nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds that plants can absorb and use
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
A carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms
microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
A community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
A pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic and abiotic compartments of Earth
a substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.
Nonliving components of environment.
photosynthetic algae found near the surface of the ocean
Basic unit of matter
Control center of the cell
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
A charged atom
A bond when atoms share their outermost electrons
A group of atoms bonded together
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
A substance produced in a chemical reaction
An atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element.
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
building blocks of proteins
polymer made of nucleotide
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
A mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another.
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
Energy needed to get a reaction started
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
Single sugar molecules
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
A process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and hence function; can be caused by changes in pH or salt concentration or by high temperature. Also refers to the separation of the two strands of the DNA double helix, caused by similar factors.
a substance that causes or hastens a chemical reaction; any agent that causes change
higher concentration of solute outside the molecule
lower concentration of solutes outside the molecule
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
An organelle containing digestive enzymes (trashcan)
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
All living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, new cells are produced from existing cells
flexible double-layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
diffusion through a protein
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
adensoine triposphate (ATP)
compound used by cells to store and release energy
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
(Adenosine Diphosphate) The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy
A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
Contain chlorophyll, place of light reaction
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
An electron carrier involved in photosynthesis. Light drives electrons from chlorophyll to NADP+, forming NADPH, which provides the high-energy electrons for the reduction of carbon dioxide to sugar in the Calvin cycle.
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
Light Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)
set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin cycle