85 terms

Bio set

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Community
All the different populations that live together in an area
Autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
ecological pyramid
A diagram that shows the biomass of organisms at each trophic level
Herbivore
A consumer that eats only plants.
trophic level
Each step in a food chain or food web
Biome
A group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms
Photosynthesis
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy. C02+H20-light-> 02+C6H1206
primary producers
the first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms
Detrivore
a scavenger, such as an earthworm, that feeds on dead plant and animal matter
Biosphere
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
food chain
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Consumer
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
limiting nutrient
single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
Denitrification
process by which bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas
Omnivore
An animal that eats both plants and animals
Biomass
total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
heterotrophs
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
Population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Chemosynthesis
process in which chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates
Decomposer
An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
Carnivore
A consumer that eats only animals.
nitrogen fixation
process of converting nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds that plants can absorb and use
Ecology
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
Ecosystem
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
scavenger
A carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms
Zooplankton
microscopic animals that swim or drift near the surface of aquatic environments
food web
A community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
biogeological cycle
A pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic and abiotic compartments of Earth
nutrient
a substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.
abiotic factors
Nonliving components of environment.
Phytoplankton
photosynthetic algae found near the surface of the ocean
Atom
Basic unit of matter
Nucleus
Control center of the cell
Element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Ion
A charged atom
covelant bond
A bond when atoms share their outermost electrons
Molecule
A group of atoms bonded together
ionic bond
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Product
A substance produced in a chemical reaction
Isotope
An atom with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons from other atoms of the same element.
Compound
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
Lipid
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
Nulceic acids
polymer made of nucleotide
Substrate
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
Solution
A mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another.
Electron
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
activation energy
Energy needed to get a reaction started
Solvent
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
Solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
hydrogen bond
weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
Monosaccharides
Single sugar molecules
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
Denaturation
A process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and hence function; can be caused by changes in pH or salt concentration or by high temperature. Also refers to the separation of the two strands of the DNA double helix, caused by similar factors.
catalyst
a substance that causes or hastens a chemical reaction; any agent that causes change
Hypertonic
higher concentration of solute outside the molecule
Hypotonic
lower concentration of solutes outside the molecule
Isotonic
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
Chloroplast
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
Eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Prokaryote
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
Cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Cytoskeleton
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
Lysosomes
An organelle containing digestive enzymes (trashcan)
Organelle
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
Organ
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
Cell theory
All living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, new cells are produced from existing cells
lipid bilayer
flexible double-layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
Centrioles
Cell organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
Diffusion
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
falicitated diffusion
diffusion through a protein
active transport
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
adensoine triposphate (ATP)
compound used by cells to store and release energy
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
ADP
(Adenosine Diphosphate) The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy
pigment
Light-absorbing molecule
Chlorophyll
A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
Thylokoid
Contain chlorophyll, place of light reaction
Stroma
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
NADP+
carrier molecule that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
NADPH
An electron carrier involved in photosynthesis. Light drives electrons from chlorophyll to NADP+, forming NADPH, which provides the high-energy electrons for the reduction of carbon dioxide to sugar in the Calvin cycle.
light-dependent reactions
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
Light Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)
set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin cycle