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Semester Review-Chapters 1-7 2018-2019
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (90)
Physics
The study of matter and energy and their interaction
SI Unit Prefixes
Used to change SI units by powers of 10
Dimensional Analysis
A method that treats units as algebraic quantities so they can be cancelled
Significant Digits
The valid digits in a measurement which indicate a measurements precision. The more significant digits the more precise the measurement
Measurement
A comparison between an unknown quantity and a standard
Precision
The degree of exactness of a measurement (how repeatable the values are)
Accuracy
The extent to which the measurement matches the true value
Independent Variable
The factor that is changed or manipulated during an experiment (plotted on the x-axis)
Dependent Variable
The factor that depends on the independent variable (plotted on the y-axis when graphed)
Line of Best Fit
a line that best passes through or near graphed data; used to describe data and predict where new data will appear on the graph
Linear Relationship (also call Direct sometimes)
y = mx + b A graph of this relationship is a straight line. As the independent variable increases, the dependent variable also increases in equal increments.
Quadratic Relationship
y = ax^2 + bx + c A graph of this relationship is a parabola. As the independent variable increases, the dependent variable also increases in increasing increments.
Inverse Relationship
y = a/x A graph of this relationship is a hyperbola. As the independent variable increases, the dependent variable decreases in decreasing increments.
SI prefix: nano
10^-9 Symbol n
Example: 1 nanometer = 10^-9 meters
SI prefix: micro
10^-6 Symbol u (really mu -a Greek letter) Example: 1 micrometer = 10^-6 meters
SI prefix: milli
10^-3 Symbol m
Example: 1 milligram = 10^-3 gram
Means one-thousandth
SI prefix: centi
10^-2 Symbol c
Example: 1 centigram = 10^-2 gram
Means one-hundredth
SI prefix: deci
10^-1 Symbol d
Example: 1 deciliter = 10^-1 liter
Means one-tenth
SI prefix: kilo
10^3 Symbol k
Example: 1 kilogram = 10^3 grams
Means one thousand
SI prefix: mega
10^6 Symbol M
Example: 1 megacoulomb = 10^6 coulombs
Means one million
SI prefix: giga
10^9 Symbol G
Example: 1 gigajoule = 10^9 joules
Means one billion
SI prefixes (must know these)
nano, micro, milli, centi, deci, kilo, hecto, mega, giga
Slope
The change in y divided by the change in x. Units of the slope are merely the y axis units divided by the x axis units
Motion Diagram
a series of images showing the positions of a moving object taken at regular (equal) time intervals
Particle Model
a simplified version of a motion diagram in which the moving object is replaced by a series of dots
Coordinate System
xy points on a plane
Frame of Reference
Coordinate system that allows description of time and displacement relative to a body
Origin
the point at which both variables in a coordinate system have the value zero
Position
the separation between an object and the origin; it can be either positive or negative
Distance
a scalar quantity that describes how far an object is from the origin.
Magnitude
a measure of size (how big something is). With vectors it is represented by the length of the arrow.
Vector
quantities such as displacement, that have both magnitude and direction
Scalar
quantities, such as temperature or distance, that are just numbers without any direction
Resultant Vector
a vector that results from the sum of two or more other vectors; it always points from the first vectors tail to the last vectors tip
Time Interval
the difference between two times
Displacement
a change in position having both magnitude and direction; it equal to the final position minus the initial position. It's magnitude equals the straight line distance between 2 points and it has a direction.
Position-Time Graph
a graph that can be used to determine an object's velocity and position, as well as where and when two objects meet, by plotting data on a vertical axis. Time is plotted on the horizontal axis and position is plotted on the vertical axis. The slope of the graph is instantaneous velocity
Instantaneous Position
the position of an object at any particular instant in time
Average Velocity
the change in position (displacement), divided by the time during which the change occurred (time interval); is the slope of an object's position-time graph
Speed
Meausures the rate of change in position
Average Speed
how fast an object is moving; is the absolute value of the slope of an object's position-time graph
Velocity
Measures the rate of change in displacement
Velocity-time graph
A graph of an objects velocity as a function of time. Time is on the horizontal axis and velocity is on the vertical axis. The slope of the line on this graph is acceleration
Position-time graph
A graph of an objects position as a function of time. Time is on the horizontal axis and position is on the vertical axis. The slope of the line on this graph is instantaneous velocity.
Average velocity
The equivalent constant velocity of a moving object over a time interval
Instantaneous velocity
The velocity of an object at a single moment in time. It is equal to the slope of the position-time graph at a specific time.
Acceleration
The change in velocity divided by the change in time (how fast the velocity is changing). It is equal to the slope of a velocity-time graph. The rate of change in velocity.
Free Fall
An object that is accelerating under the influence of gravity only
Acceleration due to gravity (g)
Accleration of an object in in free fall that results from the influence of the Earth's gravity (no air resistance and g = 9.8 m/s^2)
Force
a push or pull exerted on an object that causes a change in motion; has both direction and magnitude and may be a contact or field force.
Net force
the vector sum of all the forces on an object.
Newton's First Law
states that an object at rest will remain at rest and a moving object will continue moving in a straight line with a constant speed, if and only the new force acting on that object is 0.
Newton's Second Law
states that the acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being accelerated. It can be expressed at F=ma.
Newton's Third Law
states that all forces come in pairs and that the two forces in a pair act on different objects and are equal in strength and opposite in direction.
Equilibrium
the condition in which the net force on an object is 0. The state in which all forces are balanced.
Weightlessness
an object's apparent weight of 0 that results when an object is in free fall.
Terminal Velocity
the constant velocity of an object that is reached when the drag force equals the force of gravity.
Normal Force
the perpendicular contact force exerted by a surface on an object and gives us the apparent weight of an object.
Contact Force
A force between two bodies that requires that they be touching
Free body diagram
a physical model that represents the forces acting on a system.
Inertia
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Apparent weight
the force experienced by an object, resulting from all the forces acting on it, giving the object an acceleration. An object appears to weigh more or less due to the acceleration of an object.
Drag Force
the force exerted by a fluid on an object moving through the fluid. Fluids are both gases and liquids
Interaction Pair
a pair of forces that are equal in strength but opposite in direction.
Tension
the specific name for the force exerted by a segment of rope or string.
Field Force
A force between two bodies that does not require they be in contact
Friction
The force resisting the motion of two surfaces that are in contact with one another.
Component Vectors
Any two or more vectors that added together equal a resultant vector.
Vector Resolution
the process of breaking a vector into components
Kinetic Friction
the force exerted on one surface by a second surface when the two surfaces rub against one another because one or both of the surfaces are moving
Static Friction
the force exerted on one surface by a second surface when there is no motion between the two surfaces. A force that prevents a still object from moving
Coefficient of Friction
A variable describing the roughness of a surface.
Coefficient of Kinetic Friction
the ratio of the frictional force to the normal force for two bodies in contact where one body is moving relative to the other body. This is a dimensionless constant whose magnitude depends on the nature of the bodies in contact.
Coefficient of Static Friction
the ratio of the maximum static frictional force to the normal force for two bodies in contact that are not moving relative to one another. This is a dimensionless constant depending on the two surfaces in contact. It is used to calculate the maximum static frictional force that needs to be overcome before motion begins
Equilibrant
a force that places an object in equilibrium; is the same magnitude as the resultant but just in the opposite direction. It is the force that brings the net force to zero when added to the system
Projectile
an object shot through the air such as a football that has independent vertical and horizontal motions and after receiving an initial thrust travels through the air only under the force of gravity
Trajectory
the flight-path of a projectile
Parabola
a symmetrical open plane curve formed by the intersection of a cone with a plane parallel to its side. The path of a projectile under the influence of gravity follows a curve of this shape.
Uniform Circular Motion
the movement of an object at a constant speed around a circle with a fixed radius
Centripetal Acceleration
the center-seeking acceleration of an object moving in a circle at a constant speed
Centripetal Force
the net force exerted toward the center of the circle that causes an object to have a centripetal acceleration
Relative Velocity
is the velocity of an object or observer B in the rest frame of another object or observer A. If it is constant, where is A's velocity in the rest frame of B.
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
states that gravitational force between any two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. This law predicts the gravitational force between two masses
Gravitational Field
the field that surrounds any object with mass which describes the force around the object; equals the universal gravitational constant, times the mass of the object, divided by the square of the distance from the objects center.
Parabolic
The shape of the path taken by an object during projectile motion.
Projectile launched horizontally
A projectile launched at a zero degree angle. The initial y-velocity is zero when the projectile is launched. The x-velocity is equal to the velocity of the projectile.
Projectile launched at an angle
A projectile launched at an angle other than zero degrees.
Newtons
The units used to measure force
Pythagorean Theorem
A method used to find the magnitude of two perpendicular vectors. c^2 = a^2 + b^2
Projectile Motion
The state of motion of an object moving in two dimensions that is only under the influence of gravity.
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